Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Prurigo nodularis associated with mental health disorders

(HealthDay)—Prurigo nodularis (PN) is associated with mental health disorders, systemic illnesses, and HIV infection, according to a study published online Aug. 15 in the Journal of Investigative Dermatology.

Health

Health care workers unprepared for magnitude of climate change

An epidemic of chronic kidney disease that has killed tens of thousands of agricultural workers worldwide, is just one of many ailments poised to strike as a result of climate change, according to researchers at the University ...

Medical research

Scientists reveal how a faulty gene leads to kidney disease

New insights into why a faulty gene involved in a devastating form of a kidney condition called nephrotic syndrome leads to disease in some patients have been identified in new Kidney Research UK-funded research led by the ...

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Kidney

The kidneys are paired organs, which have the production of urine as their primary function. Kidneys are seen in many types of animals, including vertebrates and some invertebrates. They are part of the urinary system, but have several secondary functions concerned with homeostatic functions. These include the regulation of electrolytes, acid-base balance, and blood pressure. In producing urine, the kidneys excrete wastes such as urea and ammonium; the kidneys also are responsible for the reabsorption of glucose and amino acids. Finally, the kidneys are important in the production of hormones including vitamin D, renin and erythropoietin.

Located behind the abdominal cavity in the retroperitoneum, the kidneys receive blood from the paired renal arteries, and drain into the paired renal veins. Each kidney excretes urine into a ureter, itself a paired structure that empties into the urinary bladder.

Renal physiology is the study of kidney function, while nephrology is the medical specialty concerned with diseases of the kidney. Diseases of the kidney are diverse, but individuals with kidney disease frequently display characteristic clinical features. Common clinical presentations include the nephritic and nephrotic syndromes, acute kidney failure, chronic kidney disease, urinary tract infection, nephrolithiasis, and urinary tract obstruction.

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