Neuroscience

What lies between grey and white in the brain

Traditionally, neuroscience regards the brain as being made up of two basic tissue types. Billions of neurons make up the gray matter, forming a thin layer on the brain's surface. These neuronal cells are interlinked in a ...

Neuroscience

Assessing state of the art in AI for brain disease treatment

Artificial intelligence is lauded for its ability to solve problems humans cannot, thanks to novel computing architectures that process large amounts of complex data quickly. As a result, AI methods, such as machine learning, ...

Neuroscience

Video: Brain connectivity like we've never seen before

These colorful orbs are maps of the circuitry of mouse brains, showing with unprecedented detail how different areas of the brain are connected. The images were made at Duke's Center for In Vivo Microscopy with magnetic resonance ...

Oncology & Cancer

Scientists suggest device to make breast MRI more effective

Magnetic resonance imaging is becoming increasingly popular as a method of diagnosing diseases. Standard scanners are multifunctional, making it possible to cut down on the costs of specialized equipment. On the other hand, ...

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Magnetic resonance imaging

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), or nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI), is primarily a medical imaging technique most commonly used in radiology to visualize the internal structure and function of the body. MRI provides much greater contrast between the different soft tissues of the body than computed tomography (CT) does, making it especially useful in neurological (brain), musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and oncological (cancer) imaging. Unlike CT, it uses no ionizing radiation, but uses a powerful magnetic field to align the nuclear magnetization of (usually) hydrogen atoms in water in the body. Radio frequency (RF) fields are used to systematically alter the alignment of this magnetization, causing the hydrogen nuclei to produce a rotating magnetic field detectable by the scanner. This signal can be manipulated by additional magnetic fields to build up enough information to construct an image of the body.:36

Magnetic Resonance Imaging is a relatively new technology. The first MR image was published in 1973 and the first cross-sectional image of a living mouse was published in January 1974. The first studies performed on humans were published in 1977. By comparison, the first human X-ray image was taken in 1895.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging was developed from knowledge gained in the study of nuclear magnetic resonance. In its early years the technique was referred to as nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI). However, as the word nuclear was associated in the public mind with ionizing radiation exposure it is generally now referred to simply as MRI. Scientists still use the term NMRI when discussing non-medical devices operating on the same principles. The term Magnetic Resonance Tomography (MRT) is also sometimes used.

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