Neuroscience

Artificial intelligence can speed up the detection of stroke

Timely detection and accurate segmentation of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) lesions on magnetic resonance images (MRIs) are essential for the triaging patient for endovascular therapy. Lesion segmentation is a routine process ...

Neuroscience

Therapeutic cooling effectively targets site of brain injury

When a newborn suffers lack of oxygen before or during birth, doctors have very little time to save precious brain tissue. The only proven effective way to treat babies with hypoxic brain injuries is by reducing body temperature ...

Psychology & Psychiatry

Emotions come from a 3-centimeter area of the brain

The entire set of our emotions is topographically represented in a small region of the brain, a 3-centimeter area of the cortex, report scientists in a study conducted at the IMT School for Advanced Studies Lucca, Italy. ...

Neuroscience

How the brain processes rewards

Researchers from HSE University, Skoltech and the University of Toronto analyzed data from 190 fMRI studies and found out that food, sex and money implicate similar brain regions whereas different types of reward favor the ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Guidance issued for hepatic, mesenteric circulation disorders

(HealthDay)—In a clinical guideline from the American College of Gastroenterology, published in the January issue of the American Journal of Gastroenterology, recommendations are presented for management of disorders of ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Connecting the dots in the migraine brain

A neuroimaging study recently published in the journal Cephalalgia, the official journal of the International Headache Society, shared more evidence of structural changes in the brain of migraine patients. The study, entitled ...

Medical research

Peering into the genome of brain tumor

Researchers at Osaka University have developed a computer method that uses magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and machine learning to rapidly forecast genetic mutations in glioma tumors, which occur in the brain or spine. The ...

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Magnetic resonance imaging

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), or nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI), is primarily a medical imaging technique most commonly used in radiology to visualize the internal structure and function of the body. MRI provides much greater contrast between the different soft tissues of the body than computed tomography (CT) does, making it especially useful in neurological (brain), musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and oncological (cancer) imaging. Unlike CT, it uses no ionizing radiation, but uses a powerful magnetic field to align the nuclear magnetization of (usually) hydrogen atoms in water in the body. Radio frequency (RF) fields are used to systematically alter the alignment of this magnetization, causing the hydrogen nuclei to produce a rotating magnetic field detectable by the scanner. This signal can be manipulated by additional magnetic fields to build up enough information to construct an image of the body.:36

Magnetic Resonance Imaging is a relatively new technology. The first MR image was published in 1973 and the first cross-sectional image of a living mouse was published in January 1974. The first studies performed on humans were published in 1977. By comparison, the first human X-ray image was taken in 1895.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging was developed from knowledge gained in the study of nuclear magnetic resonance. In its early years the technique was referred to as nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI). However, as the word nuclear was associated in the public mind with ionizing radiation exposure it is generally now referred to simply as MRI. Scientists still use the term NMRI when discussing non-medical devices operating on the same principles. The term Magnetic Resonance Tomography (MRT) is also sometimes used.

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