Obstetrics & gynaecology

What to know about chronic pelvic pain

For many women, pelvic pain is an uncomfortable, frustrating part of their everyday life. This pain can be caused by pelvic venous congestion syndrome (PVCS), also known as pelvic venous disease.

Obstetrics & gynaecology

Male contraceptive pill found 99% effective in mice

A team of scientists said Wednesday they had developed a male oral contraceptive that was 99 percent effective in mice and didn't cause observable side effects, with the drug expected to enter human trials by the end of this ...

Obstetrics & gynaecology

Women with irregular periods may be at risk for liver disease

Women with long or irregular periods are known to have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes and heart disease, but researchers found these women may also be at risk for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), according to a ...

Obstetrics & gynaecology

How the pandemic has affected periods

The coronavirus has had many impacts over the past two years—including, it seems, on periods. Many people have reported disturbances to their menstrual cycles, some noticing changes after catching the virus, others following ...

Obstetrics & gynaecology

Study finds that COVID-19 vaccines do not cause infertility

New findings by Boston University School of Public Health investigators indicate that COVID-19 vaccination does not impair fertility—but males who become infected by the coronavirus may experience short-term reduced fertility.

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Menstrual cycle

The menstrual cycle is a cycle of physiological changes that occurs in fertile females. Overt menstruation (where there is blood flow from the vagina) occurs primarily in humans and close evolutionary relatives such as chimpanzees. Females of other species of placental mammal undergo estrous cycles, in which the endometrium is completely reabsorbed by the animal (covert menstruation) at the end of its reproductive cycle. This article focuses on the human menstrual cycle.

The menstrual cycle, under the control of the endocrine system, is necessary for reproduction. It may be divided into three distinct phases: menstruation, the follicular phase and the luteal phase. Ovulation defines the transition from the follicular phase to the luteal phase. The length of each phase varies from woman to woman and cycle to cycle, though the average menstrual cycle is 28 days. Hormonal contraception interferes with the normal hormonal changes with the aim of preventing reproduction.

Stimulated by gradually increasing amounts of estrogen in the follicular phase, menses slow then stop, and the lining of the uterus thickens. Follicles in the ovary begin developing under the influence of a complex interplay of hormones, and after several days one or occasionally two become dominant (non-dominant follicles atrophy and die). Approximately mid-cycle, 24-36 hours after the Luteinizing Hormone (LH) surges, the dominant follicle releases an ovum, or egg in an event called ovulation. After ovulation, the egg only lives for 24 hours or less without fertilization while the remains of the dominant follicle in the ovary become a corpus luteum; this body has a primary function of producing large amounts of progesterone. Under the influence of progesterone, the endometrium (uterine lining) changes to prepare for potential implantation of an embryo to establish a pregnancy. If implantation does not occur within approximately two weeks, the corpus luteum will involute, causing sharp drops in levels of both progesterone and estrogen. These hormone drops cause the uterus to shed its lining in a process termed menstruation.

In the menstrual cycle, changes occur in the female reproductive system as well as other systems (which lead to breast tenderness or mood changes, for example). A woman's first menstruation is termed menarche, and occurs typically around age 12. The end of a woman's reproductive phase is called the menopause, which commonly occurs somewhere between the ages of 45 and 55.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA