Neuroscience

Selectively reactivating nerve cells to retrieve a memory

Selectively increasing the levels of a certain protein in nerve cells that play a key role in memory storage boosts memory performance, as demonstrated in experiments on mice by a group of scientists at Heidelberg University ...

Neuroscience

Restoring nerve-muscle communication in ALS

Patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig's disease, lose muscle control as nerve cells or neurons in the brain and spinal cord degenerate and can no longer send signals to muscles. Previous ...

Medical research

Ultra-thin fibres designed to protect nerves after brain surgery

Brain surgery poses a major threat to nerve cells. Even slight injuries can kill the sensitive cells. The drug nimodipine could help prevent this. It is currently being used to treat cerebral haemorrhages. The drug relaxes ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Not all multiple-sclerosis-like diseases are alike

An antibody appears to make a big difference between multiple sclerosis and other disorders affecting the protective myelin sheath around nerve fibers, report Tohoku University scientists and colleagues in the journal Brain. ...

Oncology & Cancer

New targets for childhood brain tumors identified

People with the genetic condition neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) are prone to developing tumors on nervous system tissue. A new study from Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis has found that the development ...

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Neuron

A neuron (pronounced /ˈnjʊərɒn/ N(Y)OOR-on, also known as a neurone or nerve cell) is an excitable cell in the nervous system that processes and transmits information by electrochemical signalling. Neurons are the core components of the brain, the vertebrate spinal cord, the invertebrate ventral nerve cord, and the peripheral nerves. A number of specialized types of neurons exist: sensory neurons respond to touch, sound, light and numerous other stimuli affecting cells of the sensory organs that then send signals to the spinal cord and brain. Motor neurons receive signals from the brain and spinal cord and cause muscle contractions and affect glands. Interneurons connect neurons to other neurons within the same region of the brain or spinal cord. Neurons respond to stimuli, and communicate the presence of stimuli to the central nervous system, which processes that information and sends responses to other parts of the body for action. Neurons do not go through mitosis, and usually cannot be replaced after being destroyed, although astrocytes have been observed to turn into neurons as they are sometimes pluripotent.

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