Medical research

Molecules, nerve cells in brain trigger sneezes

A tickle in the nose can help trigger a sneeze, expelling irritants and disease-causing pathogens. But the cellular pathways that control the sneeze reflex go far beyond the sinuses and have been poorly understood. Now, a ...

Alzheimer's disease & dementia

What happens in brain cells affected by Alzheimer's disease?

Affecting over 50 million people, Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia and primarily occurs in people over the age of 65. The pathology of the disease in the brain is mainly characterized by two factors: ...

Neuroscience

Common mechanism found for diverse brain disorders

Researchers at Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC) have identified a common mechanism underlying a spectrum of epilepsy syndromes and neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism, that are caused by variations in ...

Medical research

A drug from resin to combat epileptic seizures

New molecules, developed by researchers at Linköping University, Sweden, have promising properties as possible drugs against epilepsy. A study published in the journal Epilepsia shows that several of the molecules have antiseizure ...

Medical research

Unexpected discovery opens a new way to regulate blood pressure

High blood pressure, or hypertension, is the leading modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and premature death worldwide. And key to treating patients with conditions ranging from chest pain to stroke is understanding ...

Neuroscience

Gut to brain: Nerve cells detect what we eat

The gut and the brain communicate with each other in order to adapt satiety and blood sugar levels during food consumption. The vagus nerve is an important communicator between these two organs. Researchers from the Max Planck ...

Genetics

Gene plays major role in brain development

The so-called Plexin-A1 gene seems to play a more extensive role in brain development than previously assumed. This is shown by a current study led by the University Hospital Bonn and the Institute of Anatomy of the University ...

Genetics

Defective gene slows down brain cells

Within the European Union alone, about 3 million people are affected by an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Some are only mildly affected and can live independent lives. Others have severe disabilities. What the different ...

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Neuron

A neuron (pronounced /ˈnjʊərɒn/ N(Y)OOR-on, also known as a neurone or nerve cell) is an excitable cell in the nervous system that processes and transmits information by electrochemical signalling. Neurons are the core components of the brain, the vertebrate spinal cord, the invertebrate ventral nerve cord, and the peripheral nerves. A number of specialized types of neurons exist: sensory neurons respond to touch, sound, light and numerous other stimuli affecting cells of the sensory organs that then send signals to the spinal cord and brain. Motor neurons receive signals from the brain and spinal cord and cause muscle contractions and affect glands. Interneurons connect neurons to other neurons within the same region of the brain or spinal cord. Neurons respond to stimuli, and communicate the presence of stimuli to the central nervous system, which processes that information and sends responses to other parts of the body for action. Neurons do not go through mitosis, and usually cannot be replaced after being destroyed, although astrocytes have been observed to turn into neurons as they are sometimes pluripotent.

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