Medications

High rates of opioid prescriptions for osteoarthritis

Opioids work against severe pain but the risks of side effects and addiction are high. In the U.S. alone, 26 people die every day from overdoses. Now researchers in an international collaboration have investigated how common ...

Arthritis & Rheumatism

Tanezumab improves scores for pain, function in osteoarthritis

(HealthDay)—For patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee or hip, tanezumab is associated with significant improvements in pain and physical function versus placebo, according to a study published in the July 2 issue ...

Medical research

Mast cells crucial to causing osteoarthritis

Stanford University School of Medicine scientists have definitively linked mast cells, a class of cells belonging to the immune system, to the development of osteoarthritis, one of the world's most common causes of pain and ...

Health

Just an hour of weekly walking staves off disability

Just one hour a week of brisk walking—as if you are late to an appointment or trying to make a train—staves off disability in older adults with arthritis pain, or aching or stiffness in a knee, hip, ankle or foot, reports ...

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Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis (OA, also known as degenerative arthritis, degenerative joint disease), is a group of diseases and mechanical abnormalities entailing degradation of joints, including articular cartilage and the subchondral bone next to it. Clinical symptoms of OA may include joint pain, tenderness, stiffness, inflammation, creaking, and locking of joints. In OA, a variety of potential forces—hereditary, developmental, metabolic, and mechanical—may initiate processes leading to loss of cartilage -- a strong protein matrix that lubricates and cushions the joints. As the body struggles to contain ongoing damage, immune and regrowth processes can accelerate damage. When bone surfaces become less well protected by cartilage, subchondral bone may be exposed and damaged, with regrowth leading to a proliferation of ivory-like, dense, reactive bone in central areas of cartilage loss, a process called eburnation. The patient increasingly experiences pain upon weight bearing, including walking and standing. Due to decreased movement because of the pain, regional muscles may atrophy, and ligaments may become more lax. OA is the most common form of arthritis, and the leading cause of chronic disability in the United States.

"Osteoarthritis" is derived from the Greek word "osteo", meaning "of the bone", "arthro", meaning "joint", and "itis", meaning inflammation, although many sufferers have little or no inflammation. Osteoarthritis is not to be confused with rheumatoid arthritis, an inflammatory joint disease. A common misconception is that OA is due solely to wear and tear, since OA typically is not present in younger people. However, while age is correlated with OA incidence, this correlation merely illustrates that OA is a process that takes time to develop. There is usually an underlying cause for OA, in which case it is described as secondary OA. If no underlying cause can be identified it is described as primary OA. "Degenerative arthritis" is often used as a synonym for OA, but the latter involves both degenerative and regenerative changes.

OA affects nearly 27 million people in the United States, accounting for 25% of visits to primary care physicians, and half of all NSAID (Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs) prescriptions. It is estimated that 80% of the population will have radiographic evidence of OA by age 65, although only 60% of those will show symptoms. In the United States, hospitalizations for osteoarthritis soared from about 322,000 in 1993 to 735,000 in 2006.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA