Health

China birth rate hits lowest level since 1949

China's birth rate dropped last year to its lowest level since the Communist country was founded in 1949, adding to concerns that an ageing society and shrinking workforce will pile pressure on a slowing economy.

Health

Menthol ban could increase health equity

Current policies that include restrictions on the sale of menthol flavored tobacco and nicotine products are less likely to reach those that would benefit from them the most, according to new research from the University ...

Pediatrics

Experts call for pediatric consideration in EMS planning

Ill and injured children and their families have unique needs that should be considered in emergency medical services (EMS) protocols and operations, according to a new joint policy statement published in the January issue ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis will pose clinical, economic burden

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is expected to pose a significant clinical and economic burden during the next 20 years for U.S. patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), according to a study published online Jan. ...

Overweight & Obesity

Obesity as a growing social norm

From a philosophical point of view, we cannot reconcile a world in which so many people are suffering from malnutrition and starving for want a few grains and yet others are killing themselves through obesity.

Psychology & Psychiatry

Researchers explain link between emotion and addictive substance use

What drives a person to smoke cigarettes—and keeps one out of six U.S. adults addicted to tobacco use, at a cost of 480,000 premature deaths each year despite decades of anti-smoking campaigns? What role do emotions play ...

Psychology & Psychiatry

Cigarette smoke damages mental health, too

For decades, doctors have warned about the health risks of smoking. However, their warnings focused on the physical risks that cigarettes pose to health, such as lung cancer, heart disease, low birth weight and high blood ...

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Policy

A policy is typically described as a principle or rule to guide decisions and achieve rational outcome(s). The term is not normally used to denote what is actually done, this is normally referred to as either procedure or protocol. Policies are generally adopted by the Board of or senior governance body within an organization where as procedures or protocols would be developed and adopted by senior executive officers. Policies can assist in both subjective and objective decision making. Policies to assist in subjective decision making would usually assist senior management with decisions that must consider the relative merits of a number of factors before making decisions and as a result are often hard to objectively test e.g. work-life balance policy. In contrast policies to assist in objective decision making are usually operational in nature and can be objectively tested e.g. password policy.[citation needed]

A Policy can be considered as a "Statement of Intent" or a "Commitment". For that reason at least, the decision-makers can be held accountable for their "Policy".[citation needed]

The term may apply to government, private sector organizations and groups, and individuals. Presidential executive orders, corporate privacy policies, and parliamentary rules of order are all examples of policy. Policy differs from rules or law. While law can compel or prohibit behaviors (e.g. a law requiring the payment of taxes on income), policy merely guides actions toward those that are most likely to achieve a desired outcome.[citation needed]

Policy or policy study may also refer to the process of making important organizational decisions, including the identification of different alternatives such as programs or spending priorities, and choosing among them on the basis of the impact they will have. Policies can be understood as political, management, financial, and administrative mechanisms arranged to reach explicit goals.[citation needed]

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