Health

Collagen in your coffee? A scientist says forget it

Collagen products are popping up everywhere. While collagen is probably most well known for its touted skin care benefits and as a major component of lip enhancers and injections, some celebrities, like Kourtney Kardashian, ...

Medical research

A swifter way towards 3-D-printed organs

Twenty people die every day waiting for an organ transplant in the United States, and while more than 30,000 transplants are now performed annually, there are over 113,000 patients currently on organ waitlists. Artificially ...

Sports Medicine & Kinesiology

Marathoners, take your marks... and fluid and salt!

Legend states that after the Greek army defeated the invading Persian forces near the city of Marathon in 490 B.C.E., the courier Pheidippides ran to Athens to report the victory and then immediately dropped dead. The story—and ...

Health

How to prevent food poisoning

You're sick, woozy and deeply regretting that second helping of potato salad from yesterday's picnic, because you're now one of the four million Canadians hit with a case of food poisoning every year.

Immunology

Still sneezing? Climate change may prolong allergy season

Every year, without fail, summer brings changes to our surroundings: more sunlight, heat, greenness and flowers, among many others. For some people, these changes also mean increasing physical discomfort because along with ...

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Temperature

In physics, temperature is a physical property of a system that underlies the common notions of hot and cold; something that feels hotter generally has the higher temperature. Temperature is one of the principal parameters of thermodynamics. If no heat flow occurs between two objects, the objects have the same temperature; otherwise heat flows from the hotter object to the colder object. This is the content of the zeroth law of thermodynamics. On the microscopic scale, temperature can be defined as the average energy in each degree of freedom in the particles in a system. Because temperature is a statistical property, a system must contain a few particles for the question as to its temperature to make any sense. For a solid, this energy is found in the vibrations of its atoms about their equilibrium positions. In an ideal monatomic gas, energy is found in the translational motions of the particles; with molecular gases, vibrational and rotational motions also provide thermodynamic degrees of freedom.

Temperature is measured with thermometers that may be calibrated to a variety of temperature scales. In most of the world (except for Belize, Myanmar, Liberia and the United States), the Celsius scale is used for most temperature measuring purposes. The entire scientific world (these countries included) measures temperature using the Celsius scale and thermodynamic temperature using the Kelvin scale, which is just the Celsius scale shifted downwards so that 0 K= −273.15 °C, or absolute zero. Many engineering fields in the U.S., notably high-tech and US federal specifications (civil and military), also use the kelvin and degrees Celsius scales. Other engineering fields in the U.S. also rely upon the Rankine scale (a shifted Fahrenheit scale) when working in thermodynamic-related disciplines such as combustion.

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