Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

New study uncovers weakness in C. diff toxin

A new study, led by researchers from the University of California, Irvine (UCI), uncovers the long-sought-after, three-dimensional structure of a toxin primarily responsible for devastating Clostridium difficile infection ...

Medical research

Existing drug may help fight the lethality of E. coli infection

Stopping the spread of Shiga toxins released by E. coli bacteria, which are potentially fatal if they reach the kidneys, has been a focus of researchers for years. No treatments for STEC currently exist, and antibiotic therapy ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Active interventions generally helpful for urinary incontinence

(HealthDay)—Most active interventions are more likely than no treatment to improve outcomes for women with either stress or urgency urinary incontinence (UI), according to a review published online March 19 in the Annals ...

Surgery

Over 17.7 million cosmetic procedures performed in U.S. in 2018

(HealthDay)—More than 17.7 million surgical and minimally invasive cosmetic procedures were performed in the United States in 2018, with an increasing trend seen in body-shaping procedures, according to a report published ...

Medications

Patients may become immune to botulinum toxin treatments

(HealthDay)—About 15 percent of patients treated with botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) for dystonia or spasticity can develop an immune response to the treatment itself, according to a study published online Nov. 21 in Neurology.

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Toxin

A toxin (Greek: τοξικόν, toxikon) is a poisonous substance produced by living cells or organisms. (Although technically man is a living organism, man-made substances created by artificial processes usually aren't considered toxins by this definition.)

For a toxic substance not produced by living organisms, "toxicant" is the more appropriate term, and "toxics" is an acceptable plural.

Toxins can be small molecules, peptides, or proteins that are capable of causing disease on contact with or absorption by body tissues interacting with biological macromolecules such as enzymes or cellular receptors. Toxins vary greatly in their severity, ranging from usually minor and acute (as in a bee sting) to almost immediately deadly (as in botulinum toxin).

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA