Medical research

Xpert Ultra test for diagnosing TB now included in Cochrane Review

Tuberculosis (TB) causes more deaths globally than any other infectious disease and is a top 10 cause of death worldwide. Globally in 2017, of the estimated 10 million people with TB, 3.6 million were not reported to national ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

To fight tuberculosis infection, early protection is crucial

In the first days after the tuberculosis (TB) bacteria infect the body, a flurry of immune cells are activated to fight the infection. Now, researchers have identified a master cell that coordinates the body's immune defenses ...

Medical research

Drones support remote village medical treatment

An international team of health-care investigators is piloting a new medical-delivery system that uses a "surgical strike" approach to solve pandemic problems.

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Withering away: How viral infection leads to cachexia

Many patients with chronic illnesses such as AIDS, cancer and autoimmune diseases suffer from an additional disease called cachexia. The complex, still poorly understood syndrome, with uncontrollable weight loss and shrinkage ...

Genetics

Researchers find genetic link to tuberculosis

About one in five people are infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the microbe that causes tuberculosis. Most, however, will never develop symptoms; and for decades researchers have been stumped as to why some people ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Harvard undergrad's AI model helps to predict TB resistance

One of the greatest challenges in treating tuberculosis—the top infectious killer worldwide, according to the World Health Organization (WHO)—is the bacterium's ability to shapeshift rapidly and become resistant to multiple ...

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Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and often deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, in humans mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis . Tuberculosis usually attacks the lungs (as pulmonary TB) but can also affect the central nervous system, the lymphatic system, the circulatory system, the genitourinary system, the gastrointestinal system, bones, joints, and even the skin. Other mycobacteria such as Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium africanum, Mycobacterium canetti, and Mycobacterium microti also cause tuberculosis, but these species are less common in humans.

The classic symptoms of tuberculosis are a chronic cough with blood-tinged sputum, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. Infection of other organs causes a wide range of symptoms. The diagnosis relies on radiology (commonly chest X-rays), a tuberculin skin test, blood tests, as well as microscopic examination and microbiological culture of bodily fluids. Tuberculosis treatment is difficult and requires long courses of multiple antibiotics. Contacts are also screened and treated if necessary. Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem in (extensively) multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis. Prevention relies on screening programs and vaccination, usually with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG vaccine).

Tuberculosis is spread through the air, when people who have the disease cough, sneeze, or spit. One–third of the world's current population has been infected with M. tuberculosis, and new infections occur at a rate of one per second. However, most of these cases will not develop the full-blown disease; asymptomatic, latent infection is most common. About one in ten of these latent infections will eventually progress to active disease, which, if left untreated, kills more than half of its victims. The proportion of people in the general population who become sick with tuberculosis each year is stable or falling worldwide but, because of population growth, the absolute number of new cases is still increasing. In 2004, mortality and morbidity statistics included 14.6 million chronic active cases, 8.9 million new cases, and 1.6 million deaths, mostly in developing countries. In addition, a rising number of people in the developed world are contracting tuberculosis because their immune systems are compromised by immunosuppressive drugs, substance abuse, or AIDS. The distribution of tuberculosis is not uniform across the globe with about 80% of the population in many Asian and African countries testing positive in tuberculin tests, while only 5-10% of the US population test positive. It is estimated that the US has 25,000 new cases of tuberculosis each year, 40% of which occur in immigrants from countries where tuberculosis is endemic.

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