Psychology & Psychiatry

Why do we get teary when we're tired or sick?

It's been a big week and you feel exhausted, and suddenly you find yourself crying at a nice nappy commercial. Or maybe you are struck with a cold or the coronavirus and the fact your partner used up all the milk just makes ...

Genetics

The genetic underpinnings of severe staph infections

A common culprit of skin and respiratory infections, Staphylococcus aureus is highly unpredictable. Between 20 and 30 percent of people carry quiet colonies on their skin and in their nostrils, which seldom cause problems ...

Immunology

Mitochondrial respiratory chain sustains inflammation

Northwestern Medicine investigators recently discovered that the mitochondrial respiratory chain—a series of protein complexes essential for a cellular respiration and energy production—is necessary for the activation ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Why do some people get sicker from COVID than others?

COVID-19 vaccines have saved at least a million lives in the United States alone, but for many people, a lingering fear remains: If—or when—they get hit by the coronavirus, just how bad will it be? Will they breeze through ...

Medical research

Aging lymph nodes: Seeking a solution for weakened immune systems

It is well established that older adults are more susceptible to infection and their immune systems less capable of generating a strong immune response. Now, a new University of Arizona Health Sciences-led paper explains ...

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White blood cell

White blood cells (WBCs), or leukocytes (also spelled "leucocytes"), are cells of the immune system defending the body against both infectious disease and foreign materials. Five different and diverse types of leukocytes exist, but they are all produced and derived from a multipotent cell in the bone marrow known as a hematopoietic stem cell. Leukocytes are found throughout the body, including the blood and lymphatic system.

The number of leukocytes in the blood is often an indicator of disease. There are normally between 4×109 and 1.1×1010 white blood cells in a litre of blood, making up approximately 1% of blood in a healthy adult. An increase in the number of leukocytes over the upper limits is called leukocytosis, and in leukopenia, this number is much lower than the lower limit. The physical properties of leukocytes, such as volume, conductivity, and granularity, may change due to activation, the presence of immature cells, or the presence of malignant leukocytes in leukemia.

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