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One of the most controversial topics in neurology today is the prevalence of serious permanent brain damage after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Long-term studies and a search for genetic risk factors are required in order ...
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Lessons from the long-lived: Researcher says the elderly are pragmatic 'masters and mistresses of resilience'
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Health Apr 05, 2013 | 5 / 5 (3) | 0
Schizophrenia patients experiencing relapse are 29 times more likely than healthy individuals to have a urinary tract infection, researchers report.
Psychology & Psychiatry Apr 03, 2013 | 5 / 5 (1) | 0
Risk prediction tools that estimate future risk of heart disease and stroke may be more useful predictors of future decline in cognitive abilities, or memory and thinking, than a dementia risk score, according to a new study ...
Neuroscience Apr 01, 2013 | 5 / 5 (1) | 0
Women who abruptly and prematurely lose estrogen from surgical menopause have a two-fold increase in cognitive decline and dementia.
Neuroscience Mar 28, 2013 | 3 / 5 (1) | 0
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Psychology & Psychiatry Mar 28, 2013 | 4.8 / 5 (4) | 0
(Medical Xpress)—Researchers have shown they can predict impending cognitive decline using a sensitive behavioral task up to three years in advance of clinical evidence. Until now, it has not been possible to reliably differentiate ...
Alzheimer's disease & dementia Mar 27, 2013 | not rated yet | 0
(Medical Xpress)—An ingredient used for decades in cough syrup, and to treat a variety of conditions, could hold the key to improving memory, language, and learning in people with Down syndrome.
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Mild cognitive impairment at Parkinson's disease diagnosis linked with higher risk for early dementia
Mild cognitive impairment at the time of Parkinson disease (PD) diagnosis appears to be associated with an increased risk for early dementia in a Norwegian study, according to a report published Online First by JAMA Neurology.
Neuroscience Mar 25, 2013 | not rated yet | 0
The strongest predictor of whether a man is developing dementia with Lewy bodies—the second most common form of dementia in the elderly—is whether he acts out his dreams while sleeping, Mayo Clinic researchers have discovered. ...
Neuroscience Mar 21, 2013 | 5 / 5 (2) | 0
Researchers have found new evidence that insulating cells, the cells that protect our nerves, can be made and added to the central nervous system throughout our lifetime.
Alzheimer's disease & dementia Mar 18, 2013 | 5 / 5 (2) | 0
A series of studies demonstrate improved detection of the second most common form of dementia, providing diagnostic specificity that clears the way for refined clinical trials testing targeted treatments. The new research ...
Neuroscience Mar 15, 2013 | not rated yet | 0
(HealthDay)—Given the shift in the focus of drug development for Alzheimer's disease toward earlier disease stages, before the onset of dementia, regulatory guidelines need to evolve, according to a perspective ...
Alzheimer's disease & dementia Mar 14, 2013 | 4 / 5 (2) | 0
New research, published in Neuron, gives insight into how single mutations in the VCP gene cause a range of neurological conditions including a form of dementia called Inclusion Body Myopathy, Paget's Disease of the Bone a ...
Neuroscience Mar 14, 2013 | not rated yet | 0
Dementia (taken from Latin, originally meaning "madness", from de- "without" + ment, the root of mens "mind") is a serious loss of global cognitive ability in a previously unimpaired person, beyond what might be expected from normal aging. It may be static, the result of a unique global brain injury, or progressive, resulting in long-term decline due to damage or disease in the body. Although dementia is far more common in the geriatric population, it can occur before the age of 65, in which case it is termed "early onset dementia".
Dementia is not a single disease, but rather a non-specific illness syndrome (i.e., set of signs and symptoms) in which affected areas of cognition may be memory, attention, language, and problem solving. It is normally required to be present for at least 6 months to be diagnosed; cognitive dysfunction that has been seen only over shorter times, in particular less than weeks, must be termed delirium. In all types of general cognitive dysfunction, higher mental functions are affected first in the process.
Especially in the later stages of the condition, affected persons may be disoriented in time (not knowing what day of the week, day of the month, or even what year it is), in place (not knowing where they are), and in person (not knowing who they, or others around them, are). Dementia, though often treatable to some degree, is usually due to causes that are progressive and incurable.
Symptoms of dementia can be classified as either reversible or irreversible, depending upon the etiology of the disease. Less than 10% of cases of dementia are due to causes that may presently be reversed with treatment. Causes include many different specific disease processes, in the same way that symptoms of organ dysfunction such as shortness of breath, jaundice, or pain are attributable to many etiologies.
Without careful assessment of history, the short-term syndrome of delirium (often lasting days to weeks) can easily be confused with dementia, because they have all symptoms in common, save duration. Some mental illnesses, including depression and psychosis, may produce symptoms that must be differentiated from both delirium and dementia.
There are many specific types (causes) of dementia, often showing slightly different symptoms. However, the symptom overlap is such that it is impossible to diagnose the type of dementia by symptomatology alone, and in only a few cases are symptoms enough to give a high probability of some specific cause. Diagnosis is therefore aided by nuclear medicine brain scanning techniques. Certainty cannot be attained except with brain biopsy during life, or at necropsy in death.
Some of the most common forms of dementia are: Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, frontotemporal dementia, semantic dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies. It is possible for a patient to exhibit two or more dementing processes at the same time, as none of the known types of dementia protects against the others.
This text uses material from Wikipedia and is available under the GNU Free Documentation License.
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