News tagged with antibodies
In a serendipitous discovery, scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have found a way to turn bone marrow stem cells directly into brain cells.
Medical research Apr 22, 2013 | 5 / 5 (11) | 2 |
Viruses have historically been classified into one of two types – those with an outer lipid-containing envelope and those without an envelope. For the first time, researchers at the University of North ...
Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes Apr 04, 2013 | 5 / 5 (3) | 1 |
By tracking the very earliest days of one person's robust immune response to HIV, researchers have charted a new route for developing a long-sought vaccine that could boost the body's ability to neutralize ...
HIV & AIDS Apr 03, 2013 | 4.5 / 5 (2) | 0 |
A team led by scientists from The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) and the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) has unveiled a new technique for vaccine design that could be particularly useful against ...
HIV & AIDS Mar 28, 2013 | 4.8 / 5 (6) | 1 |
Researchers at the University of California, San Diego Moores Cancer Center have identified a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets and directly kills chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells.
Cancer Mar 25, 2013 | 5 / 5 (4) | 0 |
New research in the Journal of Clinical Investigation reveals that tumours in melanoma patients deliberately create conditions that knock out the body's 'premier' immune defence and instead attract a weaker immune respon ...
Cancer Mar 01, 2013 | 5 / 5 (2) | 0 |
(Medical Xpress)—Having HIV/AIDS is no longer a death sentence, but it's still a lifelong illness that requires an expensive daily cocktail of drugs—and it means tolerating those drugs' side effects and ...
Immunology Nov 07, 2012 | 5 / 5 (2) | 0 |
(Medical Xpress)—An international team of researchers has found evidence that suggests that the ABO blood types found in all primates developed in a shared common ancestor. In their paper published in the ...
Medical research Oct 23, 2012 | 4.5 / 5 (4) | 0 |
National Institutes of Health scientists have identified how a kind of immature immune cell responds to a part of influenza virus and have traced the path those cells take to generate antibodies that can neutralize a wide ...
Medical research Aug 29, 2012 | not rated yet | 0 |
Toward 'universal' vaccine: Scientists describe antibodies that protect against large variety of flu viruses
A team led by scientists at The Scripps Research Institute and Crucell Vaccine Institute in the Netherlands describes three human antibodies that provide broad protection against Influenza B virus strains. ...
Medical research Aug 09, 2012 | 5 / 5 (5) | 0 |
Research led by St. Jude Children's Research Hospital scientists has identified a possible new approach to defeating bacterial infections by targeting an innate immune system component in a bid to invigorate the immune response.
Immunology Jul 02, 2012 | 5 / 5 (3) | 0 |
Researchers develop novel anti-body vaccine that blocks addictive nicotine chemicals from reaching the brain
Researchers at Weill Cornell Medical College have developed and successfully tested in mice an innovative vaccine to treat nicotine addiction.
Medical research Jun 27, 2012 | 5 / 5 (7) | 7 |
(Phys.org) -- A group of scientists in Singapore and the UK have isolated a human antibody capable of effectively neutralizing the mosquito-borne dengue virus. Dengue fever is currently incurable and infects ...
Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes Jun 22, 2012 | 5 / 5 (5) | 1 |
The pandemic 2009 H1N1 vaccine can generate antibodies in vaccinated individuals not only against the H1N1 virus, but also against other influenza virus strains including H5N1 and H3N2. This discovery adds an important new ...
Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes May 21, 2012 | 5 / 5 (1) | 0 |
Scientists at The Scripps Research Institute have made an important discovery about the internal programming of B cells, the immune cells that make antibodies against infections. The finding opens the way for the development ...
Immunology May 07, 2012 | 5 / 5 (1) | 0 |
Antibodies (also known as immunoglobulins, abbreviated Ig) are gamma globulin proteins that are found in blood or other bodily fluids of vertebrates, and are used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects, such as bacteria and viruses. They are typically made of basic structural units—each with two large heavy chains and two small light chains—to form, for example, monomers with one unit, dimers with two units or pentamers with five units. Antibodies are produced by a kind of white blood cell called a plasma cell. There are several different types of antibody heavy chains, and several different kinds of antibodies, which are grouped into different isotypes based on which heavy chain they possess. Five different antibody isotypes are known in mammals, which perform different roles, and help direct the appropriate immune response for each different type of foreign object they encounter.
Although the general structure of all antibodies is very similar, a small region at the tip of the protein is extremely variable, allowing millions of antibodies with slightly different tip structures, or antigen binding sites, to exist. This region is known as the hypervariable region. Each of these variants can bind to a different target, known as an antigen. This huge diversity of antibodies allows the immune system to recognize an equally wide diversity of antigens. The unique part of the antigen recognized by an antibody is called an epitope. These epitopes bind with their antibody in a highly specific interaction, called induced fit, that allows antibodies to identify and bind only their unique antigen in the midst of the millions of different molecules that make up an organism. Recognition of an antigen by an antibody tags it for attack by other parts of the immune system. Antibodies can also neutralize targets directly by, for example, binding to a part of a pathogen that it needs to cause an infection.
The large and diverse population of antibodies is generated by random combinations of a set of gene segments that encode different antigen binding sites (or paratopes), followed by random mutations in this area of the antibody gene, which create further diversity. Antibody genes also re-organize in a process called class switching that changes the base of the heavy chain to another, creating a different isotype of the antibody that retains the antigen specific variable region. This allows a single antibody to be used by several different parts of the immune system. Production of antibodies is the main function of the humoral immune system.
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