News tagged with brain development
Sand-dwelling and rock-dwelling cichlids living in East Africa's Lake Malawi share a nearly identical genome, but have very different personalities. The territorial rock-dwellers live in communities where ...
Neuroscience Apr 26, 2013 | not rated yet | 3 |
Autism results from abnormal cell communication. Testing a new theory, researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have used a newly discovered function of an old drug to restore cell communications ...
Autism spectrum disorders Mar 13, 2013 | 5 / 5 (16) | 12 |
Genes linked to autism and schizophrenia are only switched on during the early stages of brain development, according to a study in mice led by researchers at the University of Oxford.
Genetics Feb 11, 2013 | 3.4 / 5 (30) | 0 |
Scientists have found an early step in how the brain's inhibitory cells get excited.
Neuroscience Jan 30, 2013 | 5 / 5 (2) | 0 |
Working with mice, Johns Hopkins researchers have established a link between elevated levels of a stress hormone in adolescence—a critical time for brain development—and genetic changes that, in young adulthood, cause ...
Neuroscience Jan 17, 2013 | 5 / 5 (5) | 3 |
About 20 years ago, scientists discovered the gene that causes Huntington's disease, a fatal neurodegenerative disorder that affects about 30,000 Americans. The mutant form of the gene has many extra DNA ...
Genetics Jan 16, 2013 | 5 / 5 (3) | 0 |
A team at CSHL for the 1st time reveals the birth timing and embryonic origin of a critical class of inhibitory brain cells called chandelier cells, tracing the specific paths they take during early development into the cerebral ...
Neuroscience Nov 22, 2012 | 5 / 5 (3) | 2 |
Human intelligence and behavior require optimal functioning of a large number of genes, which requires enormous evolutionary pressures to maintain. A provocative hypothesis published in a recent set of Science and Society ...
Genetics Nov 12, 2012 | 3.8 / 5 (37) | 78 |
High levels of family stress in infancy are linked to differences in everyday brain function and anxiety in teenage girls, according to new results of a long-running population study by University of Wisconsin-Madison scientists.
Neuroscience Nov 11, 2012 | 4.5 / 5 (4) | 0 |
Scientists from the Florida campus of The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have shown that a single protein plays an oversized role in intellectual and behavioral development. The scientists found that mutations in a single ...
Genetics Nov 08, 2012 | 4.5 / 5 (4) | 0 |
New research examining auditory mechanisms of language learning in babies has revealed that infants as young as three months of age are able to automatically detect and learn complex dependencies between ...
Psychology & Psychiatry Sep 10, 2012 | 3.8 / 5 (4) | 1
For more than 20 years, doctors have been using cells from blood that remains in the placenta and umbilical cord after childbirth to treat a variety of illnesses, from cancer and immune disorders to blood ...
Medical research Jul 16, 2012 | 5 / 5 (5) | 0 |
Stress may affect brain development in children altering growth of a specific piece of the brain and abilities associated with it according to researchers at the University of WisconsinMadison.
Neuroscience Jun 06, 2012 | 4.7 / 5 (3) | 0 |
Researchers have shown in mice how immune cells in the brain target and remove unused connections between brain cells during normal development. This research, supported by the National Institutes of Health, sheds light on ...
Neuroscience May 23, 2012 | 4 / 5 (2) | 0 |
St. Jude Children's Research Hospital scientists have rewritten the job description of the protein TopBP1 after demonstrating that it guards early brain cells from DNA damage. Such damage might foreshadow later problems, ...
Neuroscience Apr 23, 2012 | 5 / 5 (1) | 0 |
The study of neural development draws on both neuroscience and developmental biology to describe the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which complex nervous systems emerge during embryonic development and throughout life.
Some landmarks of embryonic neural development include the birth and differentiation of neurons from stem cell precursors, the migration of immature neurons from their birthplaces in the embryo to their final positions, outgrowth of axons from neurons and guidance of the motile growth cone through the embryo towards postsynaptic partners, the generation of synapses between these axons and their postsynaptic partners, and finally the lifelong changes in synapses which are thought to underlie learning and memory.
Typically, these neurodevelopmental processes can be broadly divided into two classes: activity-independent mechanisms and activity-dependent mechanisms. Activity-independent mechanisms are generally believed to occur as hardwired processes determined by genetic programs played out within individual neurons. These include differentiation, migration and axon guidance to their initial target areas. These processes are thought of as being independent of neural activity and sensory experience. Once axons reach their target areas, activity-dependent mechanisms come into play. Neural activity and sensory experience will mediate formation of new synapses, as well as synaptic plasticity, which will be responsible for refinement of the nascent neural circuits.
Developmental neuroscience uses a variety of animal models including mice Mus musculus , the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster , the zebrafish Danio rerio, Xenopus laevis tadpoles and the worm Caenorhabditis elegans, among others.
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