News tagged with dna damage
Study IDs key protein for cell death, offers way to kill cancer cells by forcing them into programmed-death pathway
When cells suffer too much DNA damage, they are usually forced to undergo programmed cell death, or apoptosis. However, cancer cells often ignore these signals, flourishing even after chemotherapy drugs have ...
Genetics May 14, 2013 | 5 / 5 (9) | 0 |
(HealthDay)—The red in redheads' hair is thought to put them at increased risk of the dangerous skin cancer melanoma, even if they don't spend a lot of time in the sun, according to a new study.
Cancer May 09, 2013 | not rated yet | 2 |
The understanding of how a powerful protein called p53 protects against cancer development has been upended by a discovery by Walter and Eliza Hall Institute researchers.
Cancer May 09, 2013 | 4 / 5 (1) | 0 |
Scientists at the Gladstone Institutes have discovered that a certain type of DNA damage long thought to be particularly detrimental to brain cells can actually be part of a regular, non-harmful process. The team further ...
Alzheimer's disease & dementia Mar 24, 2013 | 5 / 5 (7) | 1 |
Researchers have uncovered mutations in the phosphatase Wip1 that enable cancer cells to foil the tumor suppressor p53, according to a study in The Journal of Cell Biology. The results could provide a new ...
Cancer May 06, 2013 | not rated yet | 0
We take it for granted that our chromosomes won't stick together, yet this kind of cellular disaster would happen constantly were it not for a protein called TRF2. Now, scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) ...
Medical research Feb 06, 2013 | 5 / 5 (3) | 0 |
For years, researchers have published papers that associate chronic stress with chromosomal damage.
Medical research Aug 21, 2011 | 5 / 5 (13) | 7 |
A class of anti-retroviral drugs commonly used to treat HIV, particularly in Africa and low income countries, can cause premature ageing, according to research published today in the journal Nature Genetics. The study shows ...
Genetics Jun 26, 2011 | 5 / 5 (1) | 0 |
Researchers at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine have discovered a mutant form of the gene, Chk1, that when expressed in cancer cells, permanently stopped their proliferation and caused cell death without ...
Cancer Aug 01, 2012 | 4.9 / 5 (49) | 7 |
A new study led by scientists from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) found that a healthy intake of micronutrients is strongly associated with improved sperm DNA quality in older men. In younger men, ...
Health Aug 27, 2012 | 5 / 5 (3) | 1 |
(Medical Xpress)—Scientists at the Medical Research Council (MRC) Laboratory of Molecular Biology have found that stem cells in the body's 'blood cell factory'—the bone marrow—are extremely sensitive to the main breakdown ...
Medical research Aug 27, 2012 | 4.8 / 5 (5) | 0 |
Researchers at Newcastle University have revealed the mechanism by which neurons, the nerve cells in the brain and other parts of the body, age. The research, published today in Aging Cell, opens up new avenues of understanding ...
Neuroscience Sep 12, 2012 | 4.9 / 5 (9) | 0 |
Melbourne researchers have identified a new way of protecting female fertility, offering hope to women whose fertility may be compromised by the side-effects of cancer therapy or by premature menopause.
Medical research Sep 22, 2012 | 5 / 5 (1) | 0 |
(Medical Xpress) -- Ten more DNA regions linked to type 2 diabetes have been discovered by an international team of researchers, bringing the total to over 60.
Genetics Aug 12, 2012 | 5 / 5 (2) | 0 |
In a discovery that defies the popular meaning of the word "wire," scientists have found that Mother Nature uses DNA as a wire to detect the constantly occurring genetic damage and mistakes that ― if left unrepaired ...
Medical research Aug 19, 2012 | 5 / 5 (2) | 0 |
DNA repair refers to a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome. In human cells, both normal metabolic activities and environmental factors such as UV light and Radiation can cause DNA damage, resulting in as many as 1 million individual molecular lesions per cell per day. Many of these lesions cause structural damage to the DNA molecule and can alter or eliminate the cell's ability to transcribe the gene that the affected DNA encodes. Other lesions induce potentially harmful mutations in the cell's genome, which affect the survival of its daughter cells after it undergoes mitosis. Consequently, the DNA repair process is constantly active as it responds to damage in the DNA structure.
The rate of DNA repair is dependent on many factors, including the cell type, the age of the cell, and the extracellular environment. A cell that has accumulated a large amount of DNA damage, or one that no longer effectively repairs damage incurred to its DNA, can enter one of three possible states:
The DNA repair ability of a cell is vital to the integrity of its genome and thus to its normal functioning and that of the organism. Many genes that were initially shown to influence lifespan have turned out to be involved in DNA damage repair and protection. Failure to correct molecular lesions in cells that form gametes can introduce mutations into the genomes of the offspring and thus influence the rate of evolution.
For more information about DNA repair, read the full article at
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