News tagged with dna sequences

Related topics: genes , genome , proceedings of the national academy of sciences , chromosomes , gene expression

Personalized medicine has finally arrived—or has it?

As the price for decoding a person's DNA keeps dropping, expectations for personalized medicine based on specific genetic profiling rise. But translating an individual's genetic data into finely tailored medical treatments ...

Feb 26, 2014
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Important discovery for the diagnosis of genetic diseases

A study conducted by Marie Kmita's team at the IRCM, in collaboration with Josée Dostie at McGill University, shows the importance of the chromatin architecture in controlling the activity of genes, especially those required ...

Jan 16, 2014
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How large is the alphabet of DNA?

New sequencing technology is transforming epigenetics research, and could greatly improve understanding of cancer, embryo formation, stem cells and brain function.

Dec 12, 2013
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Easy access to genetic testing

Frederick Sanger, who died recently at the age of 95, won two Nobel prizes in chemistry for his methods for sequencing proteins and DNA. Proteins were of more direct interest to many people because many ...

Dec 04, 2013
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Epigenetic changes may explain chronic kidney disease

The research of physician-scientist Katalin Susztak, MD, PhD, associate professor of Medicine in the Renal Electrolyte and Hypertension Division, at the Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, strives to ...

Nov 22, 2013
popularity 4.7 / 5 (3) | comments 0 | with audio podcast

Mutations of immune system found in breast cancers

Mutations in the genes that defend the body against cancer-related viruses and other infections may play a larger role in breast cancer than previously thought, according to a study at the University of Illinois at Chicago.

Nov 18, 2013
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Researching the roles of rare genetic variants in disease

As scientists work toward further personalizing medical treatment through genomics, heritability—the proportion of observed variation in a particular trait that can be attributed to inherited genetic factors—is key to ...

Nov 15, 2013
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DNA sequence

A DNA sequence or genetic sequence is a succession of letters representing the primary structure of a real or hypothetical DNA molecule or strand, with the capacity to carry information as described by the central dogma of molecular biology.

The possible letters are A, C, G, and T, representing the four nucleotide bases of a DNA strand — adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine — covalently linked to a phosphodiester backbone. In the typical case, the sequences are printed abutting one another without gaps, as in the sequence AAAGTCTGAC, read left to right in the 5' to 3' direction. Short sequences of nucleotides are referred to as oligonucleotides and are used in a range of laboratory applications in molecular biology. With regard to biological function, a DNA sequence may be considered sense or antisense, and either coding or noncoding. DNA sequences can also contain "junk DNA."

Sequences can be derived from the biological raw material through a process called DNA sequencing.

In some special cases, letters besides A, T, C, and G are present in a sequence. These letters represent ambiguity. Of all the molecules sampled, there is more than one kind of nucleotide at that position. The rules of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) are as follows:

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