News tagged with mutations
(Medical Xpress)—Approximately 90 percent of cancers start within tissues that form the inner linings of various organs. Decades of accumulated genetic mutations can, on occasion, induce cells specialized ...
Cancer May 08, 2013 | 5 / 5 (7) | 0 |
Pharmaceuticals that inhibit a specific enzyme may be useful in treating progeria, or accelerated aging in children. A new study performed at the Sahlgrenska Academy indicates that the development of progeria ...
Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes May 16, 2013 | 5 / 5 (4) | 0 |
(Medical Xpress)—Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is a genetic disorder that causes the muscles of the upper body to waste away. It is unusual in that symptoms do not usually appear until sufferers are in their ...
Genetics May 06, 2013 | 4.8 / 5 (4) | 3 |
Mice that exercise in running wheels exhibit increased neurogenesis in the brain. Crucial to this process is serotonin signaling. These are the findings of a study by researchers at the Max Delbrück Center ...
Neuroscience May 13, 2013 | 4.8 / 5 (4) | 0
Hitting 'reset' in protein synthesis restores myelination, suggests new treatment for misfolded protein diseases
(Medical Xpress)—A potential new treatment strategy for patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is on the horizon, thanks to research by neuroscientists now at the University at Buffalo's Hunter James ...
Medical research Apr 26, 2013 | 4.3 / 5 (4) | 0 |
People have long taken for granted that glasses and contact lenses improve vision for nearsightedness, but the genetic factors behind the common condition have remained blurry. Now researchers at Duke Medicine ...
Genetics May 02, 2013 | 5 / 5 (2) | 2 |
(Medical Xpress)—Cornell researchers have uncovered the basic cell biology that helps explain heart defects found in diseases known as laminopathies, a group of some 15 genetic disorders that include forms ...
Medical research May 07, 2013 | 5 / 5 (2) | 0 |
A research team led by a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator at the University of California, San Francisco has identified a genetic mutation that is strongly associated with a typical form of migraine.
Genetics May 01, 2013 | 4.5 / 5 (2) | 1 |
Every year, thousands of babies are born with severely malformed hearts, disorders known collectively as congenital heart disease. Many of these defects can be repaired though surgery, but researchers don't understand what ...
Cardiology May 12, 2013 | 4.5 / 5 (2) | 0 |
Increased stability of a misfolded protein linked to age of onset of common form of motor neuron disease
Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the aggregation of misfolded proteins, which accumulate to form insoluble clumps within or around nerve cells. In the adult motor neuron disease amyotrophic ...
Medical research Apr 22, 2013 | 5 / 5 (1) | 0
Pioneering research to investigate whether pancreatic cancer can be detected early through a blood test is to be spearheaded by the University of Leicester thanks to new funding provided by Hope Against Cancer.
Cancer Apr 23, 2013 | 5 / 5 (1) | 0
Gene analysis of malaria parasites has pinpointed western Cambodia as the hotspot of strains that are dangerously resistant to artesiminin, the frontline drug against the disease, scientists said on Sunday.
Genetics Apr 28, 2013 | 5 / 5 (1) | 0
A team of researchers led by Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis has identified virtually all of the major mutations that drive acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a fast-growing blood cancer ...
Cancer May 01, 2013 | 5 / 5 (1) | 0 |
(Medical Xpress)—Using a state-of-the-art DNA sequencing technique, UA researchers have discovered genetic mutations underlying seizure disorders in previously undiagnosed children.
Neuroscience May 07, 2013 | 5 / 5 (1) | 0 |
Discovery of gene mutation causing Sturge-Weber syndrome, port-wine stain birthmarks offers new hope
In new findings published on May 8, 2013 in the New England Journal of Medicine (Epub ahead of print), researchers from the Kennedy Krieger Institute reveal the discovery of the cause – a genetic mutation that occurs before ...
Genetics May 08, 2013 | 5 / 5 (1) | 0
In biology, mutations are changes to the nucleotide sequence of the genetic material of an organism. Mutations can be caused by copying errors in the genetic material during cell division, by exposure to ultraviolet or ionizing radiation, chemical mutagens, or viruses, or can be induced by the organism itself, by cellular processes such as hypermutation. In multicellular organisms with dedicated reproductive cells, mutations can be subdivided into germ line mutations, which can be passed on to descendants through the reproductive cells, and somatic mutations, which involve cells outside the dedicated reproductive group and which are not usually transmitted to descendants. If the organism can reproduce asexually through mechanisms such as cuttings or budding the distinction can become blurred. For example, plants can sometimes transmit somatic mutations to their descendants asexually or sexually where flower buds develop in somatically mutated parts of plants. A new mutation that was not inherited from either parent is called a de novo mutation. The source of the mutation is unrelated to the consequence, although the consequences are related to which cells were mutated.
Mutations create variation within the gene pool. Less favorable (or deleterious) mutations can be reduced in frequency in the gene pool by natural selection, while more favorable (beneficial or advantageous) mutations may accumulate and result in adaptive evolutionary changes. For example, a butterfly may produce offspring with new mutations. The majority of these mutations will have no effect; but one might change the color of one of the butterfly's offspring, making it harder (or easier) for predators to see. If this color change is advantageous, the chance of this butterfly surviving and producing its own offspring are a little better, and over time the number of butterflies with this mutation may form a larger percentage of the population.
Neutral mutations are defined as mutations whose effects do not influence the fitness of an individual. These can accumulate over time due to genetic drift. It is believed that the overwhelming majority of mutations have no significant effect on an organism's fitness. Also, DNA repair mechanisms are able to mend most changes before they become permanent mutations, and many organisms have mechanisms for eliminating otherwise permanently mutated somatic cells.
Mutation is generally accepted by the scientific community as the mechanism upon which natural selection acts, providing the advantageous new traits that survive and multiply in offspring or disadvantageous traits that die out with weaker organisms.
For more information about Mutation, read the full article at
This text uses material from Wikipedia and is available under the GNU Free Documentation License.