News tagged with tobacco
Measuring enzyme levels in cancer patients may reveal healthy cells' ability to survive chemotherapy
New research from MIT may allow scientists to develop a test that can predict the severity of side effects of some common chemotherapy agents in individual patients, allowing doctors to tailor treatments ...
Genetics Apr 05, 2013 | not rated yet | 0 |
Study IDs key protein for cell death, offers way to kill cancer cells by forcing them into programmed-death pathway
When cells suffer too much DNA damage, they are usually forced to undergo programmed cell death, or apoptosis. However, cancer cells often ignore these signals, flourishing even after chemotherapy drugs have ...
Genetics May 14, 2013 | 5 / 5 (9) | 0 |
In what is believed to be a first of its kind study, a research member at The Cancer Institute of New Jersey and colleagues have found that an accelerating trend of smokers relighting cigarettes is related ...
Addiction Mar 23, 2013 | 4 / 5 (2) | 1 |
Dartmouth researchers have taken an important step in the ongoing battle against secondhand tobacco smoke. They have pioneered the development of a breakthrough device that can immediately detect the presence ...
Health Mar 21, 2013 | not rated yet | 1 |
Report supports tackling tobacco consumption, improving vaccination access to reduce global cancer burden
Combating the tobacco industry's tactics in the world's poorest countries as well as ensuring the best cancer vaccines are available to those most in need are key in order to reduce the number of cancer deaths worldwide, ...
Cancer Mar 07, 2013 | not rated yet | 0 |
For expectant moms who may contemplate the pros and cons of natural child birth or Caesarian section, a Henry Ford Hospital study suggests that C-section babies are susceptible to developing allergies by age two.
Immunology Feb 24, 2013 | 5 / 5 (1) | 0 |
New Zealand announced plans Tuesday to force tobacco companies to sell cigarettes in plain packaging, becoming only the second country in the world after Australia to introduce the measure.
Addiction Feb 19, 2013 | not rated yet | 1
Researchers at Moffitt Cancer Center have found a potential targeted therapy for patients with tobacco-associated non-small cell lung cancer. It is based on the newly identified oncogene IKBKE, which helps regulate immune ...
Cancer Feb 15, 2013 | not rated yet | 0 |
Quitting smoking is a common New Year's resolution for Americans each year, but research has repeatedly shown it is not an easy task. Some groups, such as racial/ethnic minorities, have an even harder time quitting. New research ...
Health Jan 14, 2013 | 5 / 5 (1) | 0 |
A medication being tested to help smokers kick the habit also may help avoid the weight gain that is common after quitting but only in women, according to a study published in the December issue of Biological Psychiatry. This i ...
Psychology & Psychiatry Dec 10, 2012 | 1 / 5 (1) | 0 |
(Medical Xpress)—University of Nottingham researchers have been involved in a new study showing that exposure to second-hand smoke, as well as a mother's smoking while pregnant, significantly increases ...
Health Dec 10, 2012 | not rated yet | 1 |
Many of the harmful constituents found in the smoke from a conventional cigarette result from the burning of tobacco. Lowering the temperature at which the "smoke" is generated means that nicotine and some ...
Health Dec 07, 2012 | 4.5 / 5 (2) | 0 |
(Medical Xpress)—Despite concerted government efforts to curtail tobacco use, the number of smokers in the United States has remained stable in recent years, rather than declining. The reason: genetics.
Genetics Dec 06, 2012 | not rated yet | 1 |
(AP)—A federal judge on Tuesday ordered tobacco companies to publish corrective statements that say they lied about the dangers of smoking and that disclose smoking's health effects, including the death on average of 1,200 ...
Health Nov 27, 2012 | 5 / 5 (3) | 3
(HealthDay)—The American Cancer Society launches its annual Great American Smokeout event Thursday as anti-smoking advocates push to reverse a slowdown in the decline of tobacco use in the United States.
Addiction Nov 15, 2012 | 5 / 5 (1) | 0 |
Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. It can be consumed, used as an organic pesticide, and in the form of nicotine tartrate it is used in some medicines. In consumption it most commonly appears in the forms of smoking, chewing, snuffing, or dipping tobacco, or snus. Tobacco has long been in use as an entheogen in the Americas. However, upon the arrival of Europeans in North America, it quickly became popularized as a trade item and as a recreational drug. This popularization led to the development of the southern economy of the United States until it gave way to cotton. Following the American Civil War, a change in demand and a change in labor force allowed for the development of the cigarette. This new product quickly led to the growth of tobacco companies until the scientific controversy of the mid-1900s.
There are many species of tobacco, which are all encompassed by the plant genus Nicotiana. The word nicotiana (as well as nicotine) was named in honor of Jean Nicot, French ambassador to Portugal, who in 1559 sent it as a medicine to the court of Catherine de Medici.
Because of the addictive properties of nicotine, tolerance and dependence develop. Absorption quantity, frequency, and speed of tobacco consumption are believed to be directly related to biological strength of nicotine dependence, addiction, and tolerance. The usage of tobacco is an activity that is practiced by some 1.1 billion people, and up to 1/3 of the adult population. The World Health Organization reports it to be the leading preventable cause of death worldwide and estimates that it currently causes 5.4 million deaths per year. Rates of smoking have leveled off or declined in developed countries, however they continue to rise in developing countries.
Tobacco is cultivated similar to other agricultural products. Seeds are sown in cold frames or hotbeds to prevent attacks from insects, and then transplanted into the fields. Tobacco is an annual crop, which is usually harvested in a large single-piece farm equipment. After harvest, tobacco is stored to allow for curing, which allow for the slow oxidation and degradation of carotenoids. This allows for the agricultural product to take on properties that are usually attributed to the "smoothness" of the smoke. Following this, tobacco is packed into its various forms of consumption which include smoking, chewing, sniffing, and so on.
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This text uses material from Wikipedia and is available under the GNU Free Documentation License.