Allergic Inflammation

Can asthma be controlled with a vitamin supplement?

The shortness of breath experienced by the nearly 26 million Americans who suffer from asthma is usually the result of inflammation of the airways. People with asthma typically use albuterol for acute attacks and inhaled ...

Nov 16, 2017
popularity440 comments 0

Home remedies: Problems with pink eye

Pink eye (conjunctivitis) is an inflammation or infection of the transparent membrane (conjunctiva) that lines your eyelid and covers the white part of your eyeball. When small blood vessels in the conjunctiva become inflamed, ...

Nov 15, 2017
popularity0 comments 0

How the skin becomes inflamed

Publishing online this week in Cell Host & Microbe, researchers at Johns Hopkins report the discovery of a key underlying immune mechanism that explains why to how our skin becomes inflamed from conditions such as atopic ...

Nov 08, 2017
popularity12 comments 0

Neuro-immune crosstalk in allergic asthma

Exactly how asthma begins and progresses remain a mystery, but a team led by researchers at Brigham and Women's Hospital and the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard has uncovered a fundamental molecular cue that the nervous ...

Sep 28, 2017
popularity89 comments 0

Fighting allergies by silencing immune cells

University of Queensland researchers are one step closer to developing new medicines for treating inflammatory diseases, including allergies such as rhinitis, itchy hives, asthma, eczema and dermatitis.

Sep 04, 2017
popularity145 comments 0

Protecting the guardians

A guardian gene that protects against type 1 diabetes and other autoimmune diseases exerts its pancreas-shielding effects by altering the gut microbiota.Experiments in mice born with the protective gene show that exposure ...

Aug 30, 2017
popularity65 comments 0

Allergic inflammation is an important pathophysiological feature of several disabilities or medical conditions including allergic asthma, atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis and several ocular allergic diseases. Allergic reactions may generally be divided into two components; the early phase reaction, and the late phase reaction. While the contribution to the development of symptoms from each of the phases varies greatly between diseases, both are usually present and provide us a framework for understanding allergic disease .

The early phase of the allergic reaction typically occurs within minutes, or even seconds, following allergen exposure and is also commonly referred to as the immediate allergic reaction or as a Type I allergic reaction . The reaction is caused by the release of histamine and mast cell granule proteins by a process called degranulation, as well as the production of leukotrienes, prostaglandins and cytokines, by mast cells following the cross-linking of allergen specific IgE molecules bound to mast cell FcεRI receptors . These mediators affect nerve cells causing itching , smooth muscle cells causing contraction (leading to the airway narrowing seen in allergic asthma) , goblet cells causing mucus production , and endothelial cells causing vasodilatation and edema .

The late phase of a Type 1 reaction (which develops 8-12 hours and is mediated by mast cells) should not be confused with delayed hypersensitivity Type IV allergic reaction (which takes 48-72 hours to develop and is mediated by T cells). The products of the early phase reaction include chemokines and molecules that act on endothelial cells and cause them to express Intercellular adhesion molecule (such as vascular cell adhesion molecule and selectins), which together result in the recruitment and activation of leukocytes from the blood into the site of the allergic reaction . Typically, the infiltrating cells observed in allergic reactions contain a high proportion of lymphocytes, and especially, of eosinophils. The recruited eosinophils will degranulate releasing a number of cytotoxic molecules (including Major Basic Protein and eosinophil peroxidase) as well as produce a number of cytokines such as IL-5 . The recruited T-cells are typically of the Th2 variety and the cytokines they produce lead to further recruitment of mast cells and eosinophils, and in plasma cell isotype switching to IgE which will bind to the mast cell FcεRI receptors and prime the individual for further allergic responses.

This text uses material from Wikipedia licensed under CC BY-SA

Latest Spotlight News

Video game improves balance in youth with autism

Playing a video game that rewards participants for holding various "ninja" poses could help children and youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) improve their balance, according to a recent study in the Journal of Autism ...