Allergic Inflammation

MyD88—villain of allergies and asthma

Even if you don't have allergies yourself, I guarantee you can list at least three people you know who have allergies. Asthma, a respiratory disorder commonly associated with allergies, afflicts over 300 million individuals ...

Jan 30, 2018
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Treating eczema could also alleviate asthma

Scientists from VIB-UGent have discovered insights for a possible new therapy for eczema that also reduces the severity of asthma. The findings are an important next step in understanding the relationship between the two ...

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Researchers discover key driver of atopic dermatitis

Severe eczema, also known as atopic dermatitis, is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that is driven by an allergic reaction. In their latest study, researchers at La Jolla Institute reveal an important player that promotes ...

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What supplements do scientists use, and why?

Supplements are a multi-billion dollar industry. But, unlike pharmaceutical companies, manufacturers of these products don't have to prove that their products are effective, only that they are safe – and that's for new ...

Jan 11, 2018
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Targeting nerve endings to curb allergic asthma

Current asthma medications, which work by suppressing inflammatory signaling by immune cells or by dilating the airways, can stop working over time. A study from Boston Children's Hospital, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and ...

Jun 25, 2015
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Allergic inflammation is an important pathophysiological feature of several disabilities or medical conditions including allergic asthma, atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis and several ocular allergic diseases. Allergic reactions may generally be divided into two components; the early phase reaction, and the late phase reaction. While the contribution to the development of symptoms from each of the phases varies greatly between diseases, both are usually present and provide us a framework for understanding allergic disease .

The early phase of the allergic reaction typically occurs within minutes, or even seconds, following allergen exposure and is also commonly referred to as the immediate allergic reaction or as a Type I allergic reaction . The reaction is caused by the release of histamine and mast cell granule proteins by a process called degranulation, as well as the production of leukotrienes, prostaglandins and cytokines, by mast cells following the cross-linking of allergen specific IgE molecules bound to mast cell FcεRI receptors . These mediators affect nerve cells causing itching , smooth muscle cells causing contraction (leading to the airway narrowing seen in allergic asthma) , goblet cells causing mucus production , and endothelial cells causing vasodilatation and edema .

The late phase of a Type 1 reaction (which develops 8-12 hours and is mediated by mast cells) should not be confused with delayed hypersensitivity Type IV allergic reaction (which takes 48-72 hours to develop and is mediated by T cells). The products of the early phase reaction include chemokines and molecules that act on endothelial cells and cause them to express Intercellular adhesion molecule (such as vascular cell adhesion molecule and selectins), which together result in the recruitment and activation of leukocytes from the blood into the site of the allergic reaction . Typically, the infiltrating cells observed in allergic reactions contain a high proportion of lymphocytes, and especially, of eosinophils. The recruited eosinophils will degranulate releasing a number of cytotoxic molecules (including Major Basic Protein and eosinophil peroxidase) as well as produce a number of cytokines such as IL-5 . The recruited T-cells are typically of the Th2 variety and the cytokines they produce lead to further recruitment of mast cells and eosinophils, and in plasma cell isotype switching to IgE which will bind to the mast cell FcεRI receptors and prime the individual for further allergic responses.

This text uses material from Wikipedia licensed under CC BY-SA

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