Arthritis & Rheumatism

Patients with sleep apnea have increased gout risk

(HealthDay)—Patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are at higher risk for developing gout than patients without OSA for more than a year after diagnosis, according to a study published in the January issue of Arthritis ...

Sleep apnea

Age, BMI predict obstructive sleep apnea treatment success

(HealthDay)—Among patients with obstructive sleep apnea, older age and reduced body mass index (BMI) are predictors of upper airway stimulation (UAS) treatment response, according to a study published online Nov. 28 in ...

Sleep apnea

Monitoring movement reflects efficacy of mandibular splint

(HealthDay)—For individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) treated with an optimally titrated mandibular advancement splint, normalization of the respiratory effort index derived from vertical mandibular movements (MM-REI) ...

Sleep apnea

Snoring poses greater cardiac risk to women

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and snoring may lead to earlier impairment of cardiac function in women than in men, according to a new study presented today at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America ...

Health

Sleepy drivers involved in 100,000 crashes a year

(HealthDay)—Driving under the influence and distracted driving are well-known hazards, but few people think twice about getting behind the wheel when feeling drowsy, a sleep expert warns.

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Sleep apnea (or sleep apnoea in British English; English pronunciation: /æpˈniːə/) is a sleep disorder characterized by abnormal pauses in breathing or instances of abnormally low breathing, during sleep. Each pause in breathing, called an apnea, can last from a few seconds to minutes, and may occur 5 to 30 times or more an hour. Similarly, each abnormally low breathing event is called a hypopnea. Sleep apnea is diagnosed with an overnight sleep test called a polysomnogram, or "sleep study".

There are three forms of sleep apnea: central (CSA), obstructive (OSA), and complex or mixed sleep apnea (i.e., a combination of central and obstructive) constituting 0.4%, 84% and 15% of cases respectively. In CSA, breathing is interrupted by a lack of respiratory effort; in OSA, breathing is interrupted by a physical block to airflow despite respiratory effort, and snoring is common.

Regardless of type, an individual with sleep apnea is rarely aware of having difficulty breathing, even upon awakening. Sleep apnea is recognized as a problem by others witnessing the individual during episodes or is suspected because of its effects on the body (sequelae). Symptoms may be present for years (or even decades) without identification, during which time the sufferer may become conditioned to the daytime sleepiness and fatigue associated with significant levels of sleep disturbance.

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