Hyperoxia may slow formation of wrinkles

June 29, 2010, American Physiological Society

It's no secret that UVB radiation from the sun causes wrinkles. However, a Japanese study published in the American Journal of Physiology -- Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology indicates that oxygen may help combat the formation of wrinkles by lessening tissue damage done by UVB rays.

In the study, mice who were placed in an oxygen chamber after exposure to UVB radiation developed fewer and showed fewer signs of than mice who were exposed to UVB radiation alone.

UVB and Skin Damage

The readily visible hallmarks of are wrinkles and a thickening in the outer layer of skin, the epidermis. Together they make skin look and feel leathery.

The "sun-weathered" look is merely evidence of what is happening on a molecular level beneath the skin's surface, however. When skin is repeatedly exposed to UVB radiation, new blood vessels form from existing in the skin in a process called cutaneous angiogenesis. Several transcription factors—proteins that bind to specific sequences—play a role in angiogenesis, including hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1) and its subunit HIF-1 α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).

The Study

In the study, the researchers assigned 24 hairless mice into three groups. The control group, the UVB group, and the UVB+HO group. The control group was not exposed to UVB radiation. Both the UVB and the UVB+HO groups were exposed to UVB radiation by a special fluorescent lamp three times per week for five weeks, but the UVB+HO mice were placed in an oxygen chamber for two hours after each irradiation.

Over the five weeks, the mice in the UVB and UVB+HO groups developed wrinkles, but the wrinkles were more pronounced in the UVB group. Likewise, both the UVB and UVB+HO group experienced increased epidermal thickness, but again, this result was more pronounced in the UVB group.

There were differences between the UVB and UVB+HO groups on a molecular level, as well. The level of HIF-1α increased significantly in the UVB group compared to the control group, whereas there was no significant increase in the UVB+HO group. VEGF levels increased in both the UVB and the UVB+HO groups, but the UVB+HO group experienced a smaller increase. This implies that oxygen and the excess amount of oxygen in body tissue, or hyperoxia, that it provides can lessen skin damage and wrinkling caused by UVB radiation.

A Surprising Result

The study had one surprising result, as well, one involving molecules called matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Like HIF-1 α and VEGF, they play a role in angiogenesis. Two MMPs in particular, MMP-2 and MMP-9, are thought to accelerate wrinkling by degrading the outer components of cells. However, in this study, MMP-2 levels tended to decrease with exposure to UVB radiation and MMP-9 levels remained the same, even in mice who did not receive oxygen. According to the researchers, this implies that MMP-2 and MMP-9 are not main factors in wrinkle formation and angiogenesis, at least in the early stages of skin damage caused by UVB radiation.

The implications for humans remain to be seen, and the researchers note that further studies are required. In the meantime, the best way to avoid wrinkles caused by UVB radiation is to wear sunscreen.

More information: Shigeo Kawada, Masaru Ohtani, and Naokata Ishii, all of the University of Tokyo, conducted the study. The study is entitled "Increased oxygen tension attenuates acute ultraviolet-B-induced skin angiogenesis and wrinkle formation" (doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00199.2010).

Related Stories

Recommended for you

Clues to obesity's roots found in brain's quality control process

February 20, 2018
Deep in the middle of our heads lies a tiny nub of nerve cells that play a key role in how hungry we feel, how much we eat, and how much weight we gain.

Study looks at how newly discovered gene helps grow blood vessels

February 19, 2018
A new study published today found that a newly discovered gene helps grow blood vessels when it senses inadequate blood flow to tissues.

Scientists produce human intestinal lining that re-creates living tissue inside organ-chip

February 16, 2018
Investigators have demonstrated how cells of a human intestinal lining created outside an individual's body mirror living tissue when placed inside microengineered Intestine-Chips, opening the door to personalized testing ...

Data wave hits health care

February 16, 2018
Technology used by Facebook, Google and Amazon to turn spoken language into text, recognize faces and target advertising could help doctors fight one of the deadliest infections in American hospitals.

Researcher explains how statistics, neuroscience improve anesthesiology

February 16, 2018
It's intuitive that anesthesia operates in the brain, but the standard protocol among anesthesiologists when monitoring and dosing patients during surgery is to rely on indirect signs of arousal like movement, and changes ...

Team reports progress in pursuit of sickle cell cure

February 16, 2018
Scientists have successfully used gene editing to repair 20 to 40 percent of stem and progenitor cells taken from the peripheral blood of patients with sickle cell disease, according to Rice University bioengineer Gang Bao.

0 comments

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.