Routine rotavirus vaccination in Brazil has reduced diarrhea deaths in children

April 19, 2011, Public Library of Science

Rotavirus vaccination in all areas of Brazil is associated with reduced diarrhea-related deaths and hospital admissions in children aged under five years, reports a study in this week's PLoS Medicine.

Manish Patel from the in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, and colleagues show that these real-world impact data—what actually happens in reality rather than in strictly controlled clinical trial settings—are consistent with the clinical trials and conclude that their study strengthens the evidence base for use of rotavirus vaccination as an effective measure for controlling severe and fatal childhood diarrhea.

Brazil has a high incidence of diarrhea-related deaths and in young children and, in July 2006, the Brazilian Ministry of Health introduced rotavirus vaccination simultaneously in all 27 states, allowing the authors to conduct a ''before'' and ''after'' intervention analysis.

Using routinely collected national data, the authors found that in 2007 an estimated 80% of infants received two doses of rotavirus , and by 2009 that this proportion rose to 84% of children younger than one year of age. In the three years following the introduction of rotavirus vaccination, diarrhea-related mortality rates and admissions among children aged under five years were, respectively, 22% and 17% lower than expected, with a cumulative total of 1,500 fewer deaths and 130,000 fewer hospital admissions.

Furthermore, the largest reductions in deaths and admissions were among children who had the highest rates of vaccination (less than two years of age), and the lowest reductions were among who were not age-eligible for vaccination during the study period (aged 2𔃂 years).

The authors say: "This time-series analysis provides evidence of substantial reductions following the introduction of rotavirus vaccination of both diarrhea-related deaths and diarrhea-related hospital admissions from a large middle-income country in the Americas with both developing and developed regions."

They continue: "In middle-income countries that are not eligible for financial support from donors, the potential reductions in diarrhea-related hospital admissions and other health-care costs will be important for cost-effectiveness considerations to justify the purchase of these relatively expensive vaccines."

More information: do Carmo GMI, Yen C, Cortes J, Siqueira AA, de Oliveira WK, et al. (2011) Decline in Diarrhea Mortality and Admissions after Routine Childhood Rotavirus Immunization in Brazil: A Time-Series Analysis. PLoS Med 8(4): e1001024. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001024

Related Stories

Recommended for you

Past encounters with the flu shape vaccine response

February 20, 2018
New research on why the influenza vaccine was only modestly effective in recent years shows that immune history with the flu influences a person's response to the vaccine.

Building better tiny kidneys to test drugs and help people avoid dialysis

February 16, 2018
A free online kidney atlas built by USC researchers empowers stem cell scientists everywhere to generate more human-like tiny kidneys for testing new drugs and creating renal replacement therapies.

Expanding Hepatitis C testing to all adults is cost-effective and improves outcomes

February 16, 2018
According to a new study, screening all adults for hepatitis C (HCV) is a cost-effective way to improve clinical outcomes of HCV and identify more infected people compared to current recommendations. Using a simulation model, ...

Study suggests expanded range for emerging tick-borne disease

February 16, 2018
Human cases of Borrelia miyamotoi, a tick-borne infection with some similarities to Lyme disease, were discovered in the eastern United States less than a decade ago. Now new research led by the Yale School of Public Health ...

IFN-mediated immunity to influenza A virus infection influenced by RIPK3 protein

February 15, 2018
Each year, influenza kills half a million people globally with the elderly and very young most often the victims. In fact, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported 37 children have died in the United States ...

Flu shot only 36 percent effective, making bad year worse (Update)

February 15, 2018
The flu vaccine is doing a poor job protecting older Americans and others against the bug that's causing most illnesses.

0 comments

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.