College students who drink to reduce anxiety may face special dangers

February 7, 2013 by Pat Donovan, University at Buffalo

(Medical Xpress)—A study conducted in the University at Buffalo Department of Psychology has found that college students who drink to cope with anxiety may experience more negative alcohol-related consequences than peers who drink for other reasons.

Undergraduate Research Assistant Justin Kimber used data from a larger study by Jennifer Read, PhD, UB professor of psychology. That study was funded by the National Institute on and Alcoholism (NIDA).  Guided by Read, Kimber examined the pathway between Generalized Disorder (GAD) and drinking-to-cope behavior among relative to the number of negative alcohol-related consequences they reported. Such consequences include blacking out, lower grades, missing class, etc.

Kimber says, "I considered two things: the fact that self-medication theory suggests that one reason highly anxious people may drink is to cope with their symptoms, and that previous research showing that highly anxious college students tend to report more negative alcohol-related consequences.

"My hypothesis was that the reason high-anxiety students experience more negative alcohol-related consequences than other students," he says, "is that they tend to self-medicate with alcohol to cope with uncomfortable GAD symptoms like chronic worrying, , nervousness, stress and tension.

"The study is important," Kimber says, "because GAD affects 1-to-2 percent of college students in the U.S or somewhere between 207,000 and 415,000 college students who currently suffer from symptoms of ." (Figures extrapolated from 2010 U.S. Census projections of 2012 at

"I am interested in the relationship between anxiety symptoms and self-medication with alcohol because the research literature to date has shown mixed findings," he says.

"Some studies found anxiety to be a risk factor for self-medication. Others found anxiety to be a protective factor. That happens when anxiety prevents people from attending situations where alcohol may be present, thereby putting them at lower risk for possibly experiencing alcohol-related consequences."

Kimber says another issue he wanted to explore is the effect of the definition of "negative alcohol outcomes" in related studies of college students.

"Previous studies with college students usually define 'negative consequences' as long-term outcomes like alcoholism and liver cirrhosis," Kimber says, "but since these outcomes are unlikely to affect many students while they are in college, this study defined negative consequences in terms more common and immediate to this population – things like missing classes, academic failure, blacking out or sexual and relationship issues."

Kimber's study involved 72 college-student subjects with a mean age of 19 years, 4 months.  Of these, 54 percent were freshman and 41.5 per cent were female.

He says, "We retested the anxiety/drinking-to-cope/problematic drinking pathway using a measure of problem drinking developed with and for college student drinkers: the 48-item Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire, which measures alcohol-related consequences experienced by an individual over the past 30 days of drinking.

"Subjects also completed the General Anxiety Disorder 7 scale, a self-reported questionnaire used to screen and measure the severity of general anxiety disorder," he says, "and Cooper's Drinking Motives Questionnaire/Drinking to Cope Subscale (DMQ-Cope), which assesses drinking motivated by an attempt to cope with distress or negative mood.

"The study found that high levelsof general anxiety significantly predicted both drinking-to-cope behavior and negative alcohol consequences," Kimber says, "but that drinking-to-cope behavior does not fully mediate the relationship between general and alcohol consequences, suggesting that other factors also contribute to problem drinking patterns among those with high levels of anxiety."

Kimber says that findings from this work have implications for cognitive behavioral assessment of and therapy for college students.

"If clinicians recognize the relationship between levels of anxiety and self-medication with among college students," he says, "and if they look for negative symptoms of self-medication specific to college students, they can help their patients (or clients) recognize, understand and deal with their symptoms effectively without resorting to drinking."

Explore further: Sexual orientation fluctuation correlated to alcohol misuse

Related Stories

Sexual orientation fluctuation correlated to alcohol misuse

June 6, 2012
Many young adults explore and define their sexual identity in college, but that process can be stressful and lead to risky behaviors. In a new study, students whose sexual self-definition didn't fall into exclusively heterosexual ...

Rose-colored beer goggles: Social benefits of heavy drinking outweigh harms

July 5, 2011
A study by University of Washington psychologists shows some people continue to drink heavily because of perceived positive effects, despite experiencing negative effects such as hangovers, fights and regrettable sexual situations.

Curbing college binge drinking: What role do 'alcohol expectancies' play?

April 18, 2012
Researchers at The Miriam Hospital say interventions targeting what college students often see as the pleasurable effects of alcohol – including loosened inhibitions and feeling more bold and outgoing – may be one ...

Both early alcohol use and early intoxication can herald trouble for college students

August 15, 2012
An early age at first drink (AFD) has been linked to later alcohol-related problems, which is one of the reasons behind the legal drinking age of 21 in the U.S. It is unclear, however, if increased risk is primarily due to ...

Recommended for you

People with prosthetic arms less affected by common illusion

January 22, 2018
People with prosthetic arms or hands do not experience the "size-weight illusion" as strongly as other people, new research shows.

Study of learning and memory problems in OCD helps young people unlock potential at school

January 22, 2018
Adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have widespread learning and memory problems, according to research published today. The findings have already been used to assist adolescents with OCD obtain the help ...

Intensive behavior therapy no better than conventional support in treating teenagers with antisocial behavior

January 19, 2018
Research led by UCL has found that intensive and costly multisystemic therapy is no better than conventional therapy in treating teenagers with moderate to severe antisocial behaviour.

Babies' babbling betters brains, language

January 18, 2018
Babies are adept at getting what they need - including an education. New research shows that babies organize mothers' verbal responses, which promotes more effective language instruction, and infant babbling is the key.

College branding makes beer more salient to underage students

January 18, 2018
In recent years, major beer companies have tried to capitalize on the salience of students' university affiliations, unveiling marketing campaigns and products—such as "fan cans," store displays, and billboard ads—that ...

Inherited IQ can increase in early childhood

January 18, 2018
When it comes to intelligence, environment and education matter – more than we think.


Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.