Currently approved drugs found effective in laboratory mice against bioterror threats

April 9, 2013

In the most extensive screen of its kind, Texas Biomed scientists in San Antonio have demonstrated the feasibility of repurposing already-approved drugs for use against highly pathogenic bacteria and viruses. The pathogens included emerging diseases and potential bioterror threats ranging from anthrax to the Marburg and Ebola viruses.

In testing a library of 1,012 -approved drugs, commonly used for treatment of every-day ailments like diabetes and , the scientists found that ten were active against two or more bacteria and that 24 were active against two or more viruses.

Two drugs were found to be the most potent compounds in protecting mice against anthrax while one drug, chloroquine, once used to treat malaria, protected mice against Ebola virus, said Robert Davey, Ph.D., a Texas Biomed virologist.

The new study, which included authors Jean Patterson, Ph.D., and Ricardo Carrion, Ph.D., both of Texas Biomed, appears in the April 2013 issue of the journal PLOS ONE. Their findings came from a collaborative effort among Texas Biomed, independent research institute SRI International and the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases. It was supported by funds from the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, the Defense Department's agency for countering .

"Repurposing of existing drugs that may have unanticipated activities as potential countermeasures is one way to meet this important goal, since currently approved drugs already have well-established safety and pharmacokinetic profiles in patients, and manufacturing and distribution networks," the authors wrote. "Therefore, could rapidly be made available for a new indication in an emergency."

The scientists found a variety of hits against two or more of these bio-threat pathogens, which were validated in secondary tests. As expected, antibiotic compounds were highly active against bacterial agents, but the researchers did not identify any non-antibiotic compounds with broad spectrum antibacterial activity.

Lomefloxacin and erythromycin were found to be the most potent compounds in protecting mice against anthrax. Lomeflaxacin is used to treat bronchitis and urinary tract infections. Erythromycin is used against respiratory tract infections.

The most noteworthy antiviral compound identified was which disrupted virus entry and replication in cells of two or more viruses in vitro and protected mice against Ebolavirus.

Due to the demanding complexity of working with these agents under laboratory conditions as well as the fact that human drug clinical trials cannot be ethically conducted for any of these agents, conventional drug discovery and development approaches are particularly challenging. For these agents, the FDA must evaluate the efficacy of drugs on the basis of their activities in appropriate animal models, under agency guidance. Thus, drug-repurposing offers many advantages, particularly given the fact that human safety studies have already been conducted.

Members of the Texas Biomed team are presently pursuing whether the other drugs could be equally useful for treatment of these viruses.

"It would be important to determine if a combination of drugs could be more potent than each individual drug," Davey said. "Such synergy, when seen, usually means you can lower the dose of each and still have a big impact on the disease while minimizing bad side effects. Such work could prove useful as an easy frontline defense against these viruses."

Explore further: Study identifies chemical compounds that halt virus replication

More information: www.plosone.org/article/info%3 … journal.pone.0060579

Related Stories

Study identifies chemical compounds that halt virus replication

March 21, 2013
Researchers at Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) have identified a new chemical class of compounds that have the potential to block genetically diverse viruses from replicating. The findings, published in Chemistry ...

New drug screening identifies chemical agents with potent anti-cancer activity

January 5, 2012
Drugs already approved for clinical use across a variety of therapeutic categories can be screened to identify effective agents for thyroid cancer according to a recent study accepted for publication in the Endocrine Society's ...

FDA approves new drug for inhaled anthrax

December 14, 2012
Federal health officials say they approved a new injectable drug from Human Genome Sciences to treat inhalable anthrax.

Fatty acids could lead to flu drug

March 7, 2013
Flu viruses are a major cause of death and sickness around the world, and antiviral drugs currently do not protect the most seriously ill patients. A study published March 7th by Cell Press in the journal Cell reveals that ...

Recommended for you

Want to win at sports? Take a cue from these mighty mice

July 20, 2017
As student athletes hit training fields this summer to gain the competitive edge, a new study shows how the experiences of a tiny mouse can put them on the path to winning.

Engineered liver tissue expands after transplant

July 19, 2017
Many diseases, including cirrhosis and hepatitis, can lead to liver failure. More than 17,000 Americans suffering from these diseases are now waiting for liver transplants, but significantly fewer livers are available.

Lunatic Fringe gene plays key role in the renewable brain

July 19, 2017
The discovery that the brain can generate new cells - about 700 new neurons each day - has triggered investigations to uncover how this process is regulated. Researchers at Baylor College of Medicine and Jan and Dan Duncan ...

'Smart' robot technology could give stroke rehab a boost

July 19, 2017
Scientists say they have developed a "smart" robotic harness that might make it easier for people to learn to walk again after a stroke or spinal cord injury.

New animal models for hepatitis C could pave the way for a vaccine

July 19, 2017
They say that an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. In the case of hepatitis C—a disease that affects nearly 71 million people worldwide, causing cirrhosis and liver cancer if left untreated—it might be worth ...

Omega-3 fatty acids fight inflammation via cannabinoids

July 18, 2017
Chemical compounds called cannabinoids are found in marijuana and also are produced naturally in the body from omega-3 fatty acids. A well-known cannabinoid in marijuana, tetrahydrocannabinol, is responsible for some of its ...

0 comments

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.