In the age of Grindr, HIV support needs to get online

March 5, 2014 by Sharif Mowlabocus
If people are talking online, we need to be talking about HIV online too. Credit: Jayel Aheram, CC BY

Websites and apps such as Grindr and Scruff are booming as a new way for men to meet other men. But the people who seek to inform men about HIV and AIDS are finding they need to think on their feet to keep up with their migration online.

The people who could once be found in bars and clubs are now hidden behind online profiles and are proving difficult to reach. As part of a research project for the Terence Higgins Trust, a research team I'm part of at the University of Sussex followed one group of outreach workers over the course of the summer in 2013 as they ventured online to provide support, information and advice on HIV to who have sex with men.

The way in which gay and and men who have sex with men (MSM) meet one another has changed radically over the past century, at least in the UK. Legal reforms, equal rights legislation and a growing tolerance (perhaps even acceptance) of male homosexuality has meant the opportunities for meeting in different ways have grown.

In the past, cruising grounds were often the only way to find sexual partners but by the year 2000, more socially acceptable sites of queer congregation had emerged. Gay, bisexual and other men could meet to socialise, hook up and learn from each other in bars, cafes and clubs.

Meting online is the latest evolution, with sites like Grindr and Gaydar offering the chance to socialise in new ways. For the uninitiated, these websites and applications allow users to create a digital profile, upload images of themselves and then use that profile to connect with other users, often for free. Grindr also uses your smartphone's GPS to identify how far you are away from other users. Gaydar's website includes a radio station, chat rooms and a host of other features that allow men to communicate with one another. While these services might be considered hook-up sites, they also offer the opportunity to socialise and hang out with other men online.

The huge numbers of people signing up to these sites is an unmissable opportunity for communicating about sexual health. Grindr app, for instance, is downloaded around 10,000 times per day. Meanwhile Gaydar, one the UK's longest running gay websites has 5.2 million registered users worldwide. But a different approach is needed.

The idea of meeting in a bar or club to learn may seem surprising but it has long been an important part of queer congregation. In 1983, the first AIDS deaths were recorded in Britain. At a time when governments across the world struggled to formulate an appropriate response, it was gay men (and their friends) who started to educate one another about HIV, safe sex and condom use. This education didn't happen in school or at work. It happened on the street, in bars, around the "village" and at the cruising ground. Community outreach has been an integral part of the battle against HIV/AIDS and this work continues today but now needs to get online.

The outreach workers we monitored found that the sense of anonymity and distance created by the computer screen provided an environment in which men could talk honestly about their worries and concerns. This in turn allowed workers to offer the most relevant and appropriate advice to their clients and even refer them to services in their local area.

On the downside though, it seems to take longer to gain the confidence of the people they were talking to on the sites. Where once conversations could be struck up in person, they now have all sorts of hurdles to overcome. Users of online services and social networks said they found it less easy to trust others on the sites and were concerned about being watched.

And although they saw the Terrence Higgins Trust as a reliable source of information about HIV and AIDS, there was a need to go the extra mile to prove the reliability of the information being provided. Online life is filled with hoaxes and scams. Getting users to trust that it really was THT online, offering support, was a major challenge to the outreach team.

There is still very much a need to inform people about HIV and AIDS. There were only 390 deaths from AIDS in the UK last year but HIV transmission rates continue to soar. As of January 2013, an estimated 98,400 people were living with HIV in the UK, including around 22,000 people who did not know they were HIV positive. In 2012 alone, there were 6,360 new HIV diagnoses.

And while outreach workers make sense of how their traditional ways of working can be translated into digital outreach, there may well be a role for apps and websites to play too. The design and architecture of the commercial online platforms that are being used to bring men together with other men could themselves be improved to help outreach.

Unlike a bar, where people can shout across the room or have an intimate tête-à-tête, the design of an app like Grindr or a website like Gaydar means that discussions and chat happen largely out of sight. There is little opportunity for group discussion and outreach teams find it hard to break through and be seen. Bringing in functionality like this might be an important step in making sure the outreach workers can keep up with the new ways in which people are meeting each other in the digital age.

Explore further: Focus on undiagnosed HIV

Related Stories

Focus on undiagnosed HIV

January 20, 2014
A new study that aims to identify rates of undiagnosed HIV in Australia's gay community will offer free testing across six states and territories, including at Sydney's Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras.

Overcoming barriers to partner notification of HIV

February 5, 2014
(Medical Xpress)—Among the most difficult barriers to preventing the spread of HIV are those that hamper the notification of sexual and needle-sharing partners that they have been exposed to the infection. In a new study, ...

Only 1 in 3 HIV-infected black Americans gets effective treatment: study

February 6, 2014
(HealthDay)—Even though drugs that can keep HIV at bay are available, only about one in three black Americans with the AIDS-causing virus have their infection under control, U.S. health officials said Thursday.

Unprotected sex among young gay men on the rise

October 21, 2013
Unprotected sex with casual partners - one of the key drivers of HIV transmission among gay men - has risen significantly for those aged under 25.

New analysis challenges assumptions about bisexual men and HIV transmission

November 6, 2013
The number of HIV positive men who have sex with both men and women is likely no higher than the number of HIV positive heterosexual men, according to a U.S.-based analysis by University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public ...

Study finds gaps in services for heterosexual men with HIV

July 27, 2012
Heterosexual men make up a small but growing number of people infected with HIV in Canada. Yet a new study has found that many of them feel existing HIV-related programs and services don't meet their needs and are geared ...

Recommended for you

Scientists find where HIV 'hides' to evade detection by the immune system

October 19, 2017
In a decades-long game of hide and seek, scientists from Sydney's Westmead Institute for Medical Research have confirmed for the very first time the specific immune memory T-cells where infectious HIV 'hides' in the human ...

National roll-out of PrEP HIV prevention drug would be cost-effective

October 18, 2017
Providing pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) medication to men who have sex with men who are at high risk of HIV infection (equivalent to less than 5% of men who have sex with men at any point in time) in England would be cost-effective, ...

Regulatory T cells harbor HIV/SIV virus during antiviral drug treatment

October 17, 2017
Scientists at Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University have identified an additional part of the HIV reservoir, immune cells that survive and harbor the virus despite long-term treatment with antiviral drugs.

New research opens the door to 'functional cure' for HIV

October 17, 2017
In findings that open the door to a completely different approach to curing HIV infections, scientists from the Florida campus of The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have for the first time shown that a novel compound effectively ...

Researchers create molecule that could 'kick and kill' HIV

October 5, 2017
Current anti-AIDS drugs are highly effective at making HIV undetectable and allowing people with the virus to live longer, healthier lives. The treatments, a class of medications called antiretroviral therapy, also greatly ...

A sixth of new HIV patients in Europe 50 or older: study

September 27, 2017
People aged 50 and older comprise a growing percentage of HIV patients in Europe, accounting for one in six new cases in 2015, researchers said Wednesday.


Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.