One step closer to a breath test for lung cancer

May 31, 2014

Results of a University of Colorado Cancer Center study presented at the 50th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Clinical Oncology (ASCO) show that a test of organic compounds in exhaled breath can not only distinguish patients with lung cancer from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but can also define the stage of any cancer present.

"This could totally revolutionize and diagnosis. The perspective here is the development of a non-traumatic, easy, cheap approach to early detection and differentiation of lung cancer," says Fred R. Hirsch, MD, PhD, investigator at the CU Cancer Center and professor of medical oncology at the University of Colorado School of Medicine.

The device requires blowing up a balloon, which is then attached to an extremely sensitive gold nanoparticle sensor. The particles in the sensor trap and then help to analyze in the exhaled breath. (A USB device has recently been developed, which can be plugged into a computer for rapid analysis).

"The metabolism of is different than the metabolism of healthy people," Hirsch says, and it is these differences in metabolism that can define the signatures of healthy breath, COPD or lung cancer.

Hirsch points out the need for new lung cancer screening and diagnosis tools in the context of recent lung guidelines by the U.S. Preventative Task Force showing that screening via low-dose computed tomography can reduce disease mortality by 20 percent. However, along with more sensitive screening comes a much higher incidence of false positives, primarily in the form of non-cancerous lung nodules.

"You detect many, many nodules in those screenings and unfortunately, around 90 percent of them are benign. So you need to find out how to better distinguish malignant from benign modules. The goal of this tool is to use breath biomarkers to distinguish malignant from benign screen-detected nodules," Hirsch says.

The developing device represents a collaboration between the University of Colorado Cancer Center and researchers from the Nobel-Prize-winning institution Technion University in Haifa, Israel.

The device's potential uses go beyond diagnosis.

"In addition to using levels of volatile organic compounds to diagnose lung cancer, we could eventually measure the change in patients' levels of VOCs across time with the intent of, for example, monitoring how well a patient responds to specific treatments," Hirsch says.

A breath now and a breath after treatment could define whether a patient should stay with a drug regimen or explore other options. In fact, a study with this goal was recently initiated at the University of Colorado Cancer Center.

Additionally, Hirsch points out that next generations of the device could potentially help doctors quickly, simply, and inexpensively define patients' lung cancer subtypes, allowing doctors to pair molecularly targeted therapies with subtypes early in the treatment process.

"If it works, you can imagine standing in the grocery store and having high risk people blow into a balloon or a USB device, and the profile of the in their breath would tell you if they are at risk for developing or having , which then could lead to further, focused tests," Hirsch says.

Explore further: Breath analysis offers non-invasive method to detect early lung cancer

Related Stories

Breath analysis offers non-invasive method to detect early lung cancer

April 29, 2014
Researchers at the University of Louisville School of Medicine are using breath analysis to detect the presence of lung cancer. Preliminary data indicate that this promising noninvasive tool offers the sensitivity of PET ...

Exhaled breath biomarker may detect lung cancer

October 28, 2013
Researchers at Cleveland Clinic recently discovered that lung cancer may be detected in patients by testing their exhaled breath. Preliminary studies suggest that an accurate exhaled breath biomarker could be developed for ...

Breath test may detect signs of lung cancer, study finds

January 28, 2014
(HealthDay)—A simple breath test might reveal if a person has early-stage lung cancer, according to a new study.

Breath tests could be used to diagnose lung cancer

September 9, 2013
Collecting samples of exhaled breath from people at a high risk of lung cancer could be a cheap and non-invasive method of diagnosing the disease, according to new research.

Sniffer dogs can be used to detect lung cancer

August 18, 2011
Sniffer dogs could be used for the early detection of lung cancer, according to new research published in the European Respiratory Journal.

Recommended for you

Cancer-death button gets jammed by gut bacterium

July 27, 2017
Researchers at Michigan Medicine and in China showed that a type of bacterium is associated with the recurrence of colorectal cancer and poor outcomes. They found that Fusobacterium nucleatum in the gut can stop chemotherapy ...

Researchers release first draft of a genome-wide cancer 'dependency map'

July 27, 2017
In one of the largest efforts to build a comprehensive catalog of genetic vulnerabilities in cancer, researchers from the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute have identified more than 760 genes ...

Long-sought mechanism of metastasis is discovered in pancreatic cancer

July 27, 2017
Cells, just like people, have memories. They retain molecular markers that at the beginning of their existence helped guide their development. Cells that become cancerous may be making use of these early memories to power ...

Blocking the back-door that cancer cells use to escape death by radiotherapy

July 27, 2017
A natural healing mechanism of the body may be reducing the efficiency of radiotherapy in breast cancer patients, according to a new study.

Manmade peptides reduce breast cancer's spread

July 27, 2017
Manmade peptides that directly disrupt the inner workings of a gene known to support cancer's spread significantly reduce metastasis in a mouse model of breast cancer, scientists say.

Glowing tumor technology helps surgeons remove hidden cancer cells

July 27, 2017
Surgeons were able to identify and remove a greater number of cancerous nodules from lung cancer patients when combining intraoperative molecular imaging (IMI) - through the use of a contrast agent that makes tumor cells ...

1 comment

Adjust slider to filter visible comments by rank

Display comments: newest first

Bob_60441
not rated yet May 31, 2014
This is both very interesting, and with certain technologies possible. We know dogs have the ability to sense (smell?) some artifact of cancer, what that is I have no idea. Also "helper dogs" can among other things, detect some change-of-state, before a seizure. The old line "animals can smell fear" may be quite literally true.

How to "bottle that" might be understood by tracing chemical markers (oder's) using PET scans from say a dogs olfactory sense to other areas of the brain along which that data is processed. If we can't tell how, perhaps seeing the associated informatics pathway will help us see "what". That boils down to signal science. Interesting work indeed…

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.