Jetlag skin patch may prevent brain damage in newborns

May 13, 2014 by Niall Byrne

A simple and affordable 'jetlag' skin patch could help prevent deaths and disabilities of two million babies worldwide each year by reducing brain damage caused by low oxygen during birth.

Monash University PhD student James Aridas and his colleagues at MIMR-PHI Institute's Ritchie Centre have found that melatonin patches, commonly used to treat jetlag in the US, can reduce damaging free radicals and subsequent brain cell death when they are administered in the hours after birth asphyxia has occurred.

The discovery could help change the fate of around 300 Australian babies who develop disabilities and after birth asphyxia each year, as well as that of millions of babies in developing countries where treatment is almost non-existent.

James and supervisors Dr Suzie Miller and Professor Graham Jenkin undertook preclinical studies in animals with help from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and they will begin clinical trials of the patches in India next year.

"We're hoping to reduce the burden of chronic illness that occurs following birth asphyxia," says James. "We're also hoping that we can reduce the mortality rates in newborns and improve the quality of life for both the children who go on to develop conditions such as cerebral palsy, and their families."

Melatonin is a hormone secreted by the pineal gland in the brain, which helps neutralise free radicals in the body. Free radicals are unstable molecules that are a natural waste by-product of the body when it uses oxygen to create energy.

They can damage the fats that are an important part of cell walls and organs, and which are rich in newborn babies' brains.

The body can normally eliminate these destructive molecules. However, when a baby is starved of oxygen and then re-exposed to it, there is an overproduction of in the first hours after birth, which overwhelms the body's capacity to eliminate them.

"The low oxygen itself does cause , but it is really in the hours following that the brain damage occurs," James says. "There is therefore an important window of time after birth when our treatment can potentially reduce permanent brain injury."

James and his team used MRI scans to show that the melatonin treatment improved brain metabolism and reduced cell death when it was given to lambs after birth asphyxia.

Each year, four million human babies suffer a lack of oxygen during birth worldwide, with one million of them dying and one million developing disabilities. Eighty per cent of all asphyxia cases happen in developing countries, where the bulk of deaths and disabilities also occur.

In Australia, around 1240 babies suffer birth asphyxia each year, and 10 to 25 per cent of these cases result in deaths and 25 per cent result in disabilities or long-term developmental disorders, such as cerebral palsy, epilepsy or vision and hearing loss.

According to James, the burden of disabilities is both a physical and economic one. "It costs over A$7 million to care for an Australian child with over a lifetime," he says. "Melatonin is such a cheap treatment initially, but it could reduce the economic burden immensely later on."

James says the melatonin patches are also easy to use and can be stored without refrigeration, which could allow remote rural areas and people in to use a non-invasive, accessible and effective treatment in the important hours after .

The current treatment in Australia involves expensive machines that cool the baby's brain; however, around 50 per cent of affected babies are still disabled or die despite treatment.

Explore further: Novel resuscitation strategy for babies with birth asphyxia

More information: James is presenting his work in public at FameLab Australia in Fremantle on 13 May 2014.

Related Stories

Novel resuscitation strategy for babies with birth asphyxia

April 3, 2014
During birth, the baby has to stop depending on the placenta and start breathing on his or her own. If there are problems during the birth process, the baby may spend a period of time in the pathological condition of asphyxia, ...

Enzyme controlling cell death paves way for treatment of brain damage in newborns

October 25, 2011
where the brain is starved of oxygen around the time of delivery – is normally treated by cooling the infant, but this only helps one baby in nine. New research from the Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, ...

Human error most common cause of birth asphyxia

November 18, 2013
Findings from a 15-year study published in Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, a journal of the Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology, indicate that human error is the most common cause of ...

Study associates gene with cerebral palsy and death in very preterm babies

February 3, 2014
In a study to be presented on Feb. 6 at the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine's annual meeting, The Pregnancy Meeting, in New Orleans, researchers will report that a variant in SERPINE1, a gene involved in inflammation ...

New insight into SIDS deaths points to lack of oxygen

April 15, 2014
(Medical Xpress)—Research at the University of Adelaide has shed new light onto the possible causes of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), which could help to prevent future loss of children's lives.

Studying brain-cooling for birth asphyxia

March 21, 2013
In high income countries brain cooling is standard treatment for neonatal encephalopathy - unexpected, devastating brain injury due to low oxygen and blood in the baby's brain at birth. This therapy reduces mortality and ...

Recommended for you

Study shows probiotics can prevent sepsis in infants

August 17, 2017
A research team at the University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Public Health has determined that a special mixture of good bacteria in the body reduced the incidence of sepsis in infants in India by 40 percent at ...

Children who sleep an hour less at higher risk of type 2 diabetes, says study

August 15, 2017
A study has found that children who slept on average one hour less a night had higher risk factors for type 2 diabetes, including higher levels of blood glucose and insulin resistance.

Low blood sugars in newborns linked to later difficulties

August 8, 2017
A newborn condition affecting one in six babies has been linked to impairment in some high-level brain functions that shows up by age 4.5 years.

Can breast milk feed a love of vegetables?

August 4, 2017
(HealthDay)—Want your preschooler to eat veggies without a fuss? Try eating veggies while you're breast-feeding.

Small drop in measles vaccinations would have outsized effect, study estimates

July 24, 2017
Small reductions in childhood measles vaccinations in the United States would produce disproportionately large increases in the number of measles cases and in related public health costs, according to a new study by researchers ...

At the cellular level, a child's loss of a father is associated with increased stress

July 18, 2017
The absence of a father—due to incarceration, death, separation or divorce—has adverse physical and behavioral consequences for a growing child. But little is known about the biological processes that underlie this link ...

0 comments

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.