Estimated costs of endocrine-disrupting chemical exposure exceed $209 billion annually

March 5, 2015, The Endocrine Society

A new economic analysis found exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals likely costs the European Union €157 billion ($209 billion) a year in actual health care expenses and lost earning potential, according to a new series of studies published in the Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.

The authors presented the findings today at simultaneous press events at ENDO 2015, the Endocrine Society's 97th Annual Meeting & Expo, and in Brussels, Belgium.

Global experts in this field concluded that infertility and male reproductive dysfunctions, birth defects, obesity, diabetes, , and neurobehavioral and learning disorders were among the conditions than can be attributed in part to to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). The €157 billion estimate is conservative, and represents 1.23 percent of Europe's gross domestic product (GDP). These costs may actually be as high as €270 billion ($359 billion), or 2% of GDP.

"The analysis demonstrates just how staggering the cost of widespread endocrine-disrupting chemical exposure is to society," said Leonardo Trasande, MD, MPP, Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Environmental Medicine & Population Health at NYU Langone Medical Center, who led a team of eighteen researchers across eight countries in this landmark initiative. "This research crystalizes more than three decades of lab and population-based studies of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the EU."

EDCs mimic, block or interfere with the body's hormones. EDCs include bisphenol A (BPA) found in till receipts and food can linings, certain phthalates found in plastic products and cosmetics, flame retardants and pesticides such as chlorpyrifos. Nearly 100 percent of people have detectable amounts of EDCs in their bodies, according to the introductory guide to EDCs published by the Endocrine Society and IPEN.

To assess the economic burden of EDC exposure, a group of scientists convened a panel of global EDC experts to adapt existing environmental health cost models, relying on the Institute of Medicine's 1981 approach of assessing the contribution of environment factors in causing illness, to calculate the estimated cost burden of EDCs. Based on the body of established literature, the researchers evaluated the likelihood that EDCs contributed to various medical conditions and dysfunctions but limited the analysis to the disorders with the strongest scientific evidence.

The analysis included direct costs of hospital stays, physician services, nursing home care and other medical costs. The researchers also calculated estimates of such as lost worker productivity, early death and disability.

"Although this analysis was limited to the European Union, the disease and cost burden of exposure is likely to be on the same order of magnitude in the United States and elsewhere in the world," Trasande said.

In the EU, researchers found the biggest cost driver was loss of IQ and intellectual disabilities caused by to pesticides containing organophosphates. The study estimated the harm done to unborn children costs society between €46.8 billion and €195 billion a year. About 13 million lost IQ points and 59,300 additional cases of intellectual disability per year can be attributed to organophosphate exposure.

Adult obesity linked to phthalate exposure generated the second-highest total, with estimated costs of €15.6 billion a year.

"Our findings show that limiting exposure to the most common and hazardous endocrine-disrupting chemicals is likely to yield significant economic benefits," said one of the study's authors, Philippe Grandjean, MD, PhD, Professor of Environmental Medicine at the University of Southern Denmark and Adjunct Professor at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. "This approach has the potential to inform decision-making in the arena. We are hoping to bring the latest endocrine science to the attention of policymakers as they weigh how to regulate these toxic chemicals."

Other authors of the studies include: R. Thomas Zoeller of the University of Massachusetts in Amherst, MA; Ulla Hass of the National Food Institute at the Technical University of Denmark in S&ostroke;borg, Denmark; Andreas Kortenkamp of Brunel University in Uxbridge, Middlesex, United Kingdom; John Peterson Myers of Environmental Health Services in Charlottesville, VA; Joseph DiGangi of IPEN in Gothenburg, Sweden; Martine Bellanger of EHESP School of Public Health in Paris, France; Russ Hauser of T.H. Chan Harvard School of Public Health in Boston, MA; Juliette Legler of VU University in Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Niels Skakkebaek, Anna Maria Andersson and Anders Juul of Rigshospitalet, EDMaRC and University of Copenhagen in Copenhagen, Denmark; Jerrold J. Heindel of National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences in Research Triangle Park, NC; Tony Fletcher of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine in London, UK; Eva Govarts of the Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO) in Mol, Belgium; Miquel Porta of the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Hospital del Mar Institute of Medical Research and CIBERESP in Barcelona, Spain; Bruce Blumberg of the University of California, Irvine; Jorma Toppari of the University of Turku in Turku, Finland; and Barbara Demeneix of the National Center for Scientific Research (CRNS) at Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris in Paris, France.

The studies are:

* "Estimating Burden and Disease Costs of Exposure to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in the European Union"
*"Male Reproductive Disorders, Diseases and Costs of Exposure to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in the European Union"
* "Obesity, Diabetes and Associated Costs of Exposure to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in the European Union"
* "Neurobehavioral Deficits, Diseases and Associated Costs of Exposure to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in the European Union"

The studies were published online, ahead of print.

Explore further: New resource on health threats posed by endocrine-disrupting chemicals

Related Stories

New resource on health threats posed by endocrine-disrupting chemicals

December 9, 2014
As governments, industry and public interest groups from across the globe prepare to meet next week to discuss endocrine-disrupting chemicals and other international chemical safety issues, the Endocrine Society and IPEN ...

National Food Institute maintains its assessment of bisphenol A

February 24, 2015
After having examined the European Food Safety Authority, EFSA's new health assessment of bisphenol A, the National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, maintains its assessment of the chemical compound. The institute's ...

Fracking chemicals disrupt hormone function

December 16, 2013
A controversial oil and natural gas drilling technique called hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, uses many chemicals that can disrupt the body's hormones, according to new research accepted for publication in The Endocrine ...

Experts say endocrine-disrupting chemicals pose global health threat

September 23, 2013
In an editorial published in Endocrinology, a journal of The Endocrine Society, endocrine experts agreed that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) pose a threat to human health and to the ecosystems of the earth. The editorial ...

Current chemical testing missing low-dosage effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals

March 29, 2012
Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) -- such as BPA -- can show tangible effects on health endpoints at high dosage levels, yet those effects do not predict how EDCs will affect the endocrine system at low doses, according ...

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals alter thyroid hormone activity during pregnancy

October 9, 2014
A new study in human placenta provides the strongest evidence to date that Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) can interfere with thyroid hormone action in pregnant women. The implication is that flame retardant chemicals ...

Recommended for you

Accurate measurements of sodium intake confirm relationship with mortality

June 21, 2018
Eating foods high in salt is known to contribute to high blood pressure, but does that linear relationship extend to increased risk of cardiovascular disease and death? Recent cohort studies have contested that relationship, ...

Fans of yoga therapy have yet to win over doctors

June 21, 2018
Yoga practitioners often tout the unique health benefits of the ancient discipline—from relieving stress and pain to improving vascular health—but most doctors remain sceptical in the absence of hard proof.

Fruit and vegetables linked to changes in skin colour, new research finds

June 21, 2018
Skin colour in young Caucasian men is strongly linked to high levels of fruit and vegetable consumption, new research by Curtin University has found.

What a pain: The iPad neck plagues women more

June 20, 2018
Is your iPad being a literal pain in the neck?

Medicaid work requirements and health savings accounts may impact people's coverage

June 20, 2018
Current experimental approaches in Medicaid programs—including requirements to pay premiums, contribute to health savings accounts, or to work—may lead to unintended consequences for patient coverage and access, such ...

Introduction of alcohol found to adversely impact fertility rates in hunter-gatherer community

June 19, 2018
Fernando Ramirez Rozzi, a research director with the French National Centre for Scientific Research has found that the introduction of alcohol to a Baka pygmy hunter-gatherer society caused fertility rates to fall. In his ...

1 comment

Adjust slider to filter visible comments by rank

Display comments: newest first

VOR_
not rated yet Mar 05, 2015
Were people's lives really that much less convenient, affordable, and productive
before the widespread use of such plastics and chemicals in products that cause direct exposure? Would it really NOT be worth it to just ban it's use in ALL products that we commonly
come in contact with? And require the placement of clear warnings on occasional use/exposure products? The folks that benefit the most from the use of such products are the producers, not the consumers.

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.