New precision medicine guidelines aimed at improving personalized cancer treatment plans

January 19, 2016

Tuesday, Jan 19th, 2016, Cleveland: A committee of national experts, led by a Cleveland Clinic researcher, has established first-of-its-kind guidelines to promote more accurate and individualized cancer predictions, guiding more precise treatment and leading to improved patient survival rates and outcomes.

These new guidelines are changing the traditional approach of staging methods for cancer treatment. The new risk calculators - which will complement the existing staging system - will enable physicians to more accurately and precisely determine the best treatment for individual patients.

The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC), which is responsible for periodically evaluating and updating the cancer stages, has acknowledged that cancer stages are imperfect, and it is committed to enhancing the system with more prognostic, statistically based risk calculators in 2016.

In preparation for these changes, the AJCC invited a group of top healthcare statistical experts from across the country to form the Precision Medicine Core (PMC). Led by Michael Kattan, Ph.D., MBA, chair of Cleveland Clinic's Department of Quantitative Health Sciences at Cleveland Clinic's Lerner Research Institute, the group discussed characteristics necessary for developing a quality risk model in cancer patients. The emphasis centered on performance metrics, implementation clarity, and clinical relevance.

"This represents a new paradigm shift for the future of cancer treatments," Kattan said.

The new guidelines will be published in the highly esteemed journal CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians on Tuesday, January 19th, 2016.

The Precision Medicine Core (PMC) was tasked with developing a criteria checklist to evaluate possible cancer risk calculators and determine which calculators will be endorsed by AJCC. The group identified 13 inclusion and 3 exclusion criteria for AJCC risk model endorsement in cancer. The following cancers will be the first to be evaluated for existing prediction models: breast, colon, prostate, lung, melanoma, and head and neck cancer, with the goal being to comprehensively include all cancers in the future. The PMC consists of researchers from Cleveland Clinic, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Stanford University, UMC Utrecht, The Netherlands, University of Pennsylvania, Duke University, Sage Bionetworks, Queen's University, University of Illinois Hospital & Health Sciences System, Mayo Clinic, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and Arizona State University.

The formulas must predict overall survival or death from a particular type of cancer and have to pass all 16 criteria. "Our checklist should open the door to a wave of statistical prediction models that get used clinically across many different cancers," said Kattan, a pioneer in the development of cancer risk calculators called nomograms. "It could potentially be applied outside cancer as well - anywhere statistical prediction models are being considered for widespread usage."

The current cancer staging system (stages I-IV), otherwise known as TNM, has been used for decades and is a simple way to universally assess cancer progression in patients around the world. However, many believe that the system is outdated, lumping all cancer patients into 4 stages, which do not account for individual differences in risk factors—such as genetics, age, gender, and lifestyle. As a result, a patient who is, for example, a "bad" stage 3, might be undertreated for a cancer that is likely to metastasize. On the other hand, a "good" stage 3 patient might receive more aggressive treatment than is necessary, which can lead to toxic side effects on the heart, kidneys or other organs.

Now that the guidelines have been established, researchers across the world will be invited to submit their cancer risk formulas for review by AJCC, with the potential of changing the face of cancer treatment for millions of people worldwide.

"When the models get into physicians' hands, the way patients are treated and managed and counseled will be forever changed for the better," Kattan said. "This is truly a great example of how precision medicine will help cancer patients in the not so distant future."

The next step will be distribution of this checklist, as well as the process, to authors of . They will then be invited to submit their models for consideration.

According to the American Cancer Society, in 2016 there will be an estimated 1,685,210 new cancer cases diagnosed and 595,690 cancer deaths in the U.S. Cancer is the second most common cause of death in the U.S., exceeded only by heart disease, and accounts for nearly 1 out of every 4 deaths.

Explore further: Researchers create online colorectal cancer risk calculator

Related Stories

Researchers create online colorectal cancer risk calculator

January 3, 2014
January 3, 2014, Cleveland: Researchers at Cleveland Clinic have developed a new tool called CRC-PRO that allows physicians to quickly and accurately predict an individual's risk of colorectal cancer, as published in the ...

Gene thought to suppress cancer may actually promote spread of colorectal cancer

January 4, 2016
A gene that is known to suppress the growth and spread of many types of cancer has the opposite effect in some forms of colorectal cancer, University of Missouri School of Medicine researchers have found. It is a finding ...

Cancer death rate continues steady drop

January 7, 2016
Steady reductions in smoking combined with advances in cancer prevention, early detection, and treatment have resulted in a 23% drop in the cancer death rate since its peak in 1991. The drop translates to more than 1.7 million ...

Study quantifies faulty gene's role in ovarian cancer risk

January 19, 2016
Women who carry an inherited fault in the BRIP1 gene are three times more likely to develop ovarian cancer than those without it, researchers said Tuesday.

Experts believe lifestyle changes, public health efforts responsible for decrease in cancer deaths

January 18, 2016
The American Cancer Society's recent report of a 23-percent decline in the cancer death rate since 1991 can partially be attributed to public health efforts, social change and public policies, such as the abundance of nonsmoking ...

Colorectal cancer more likely to affect minorities at younger age

January 12, 2016
Colorectal cancer is the third most common form of cancer and the second most common cause of cancer deaths in the United States. The chance of developing colorectal cancer increases with age. Now, a study by University of ...

Recommended for you

How a non-coding RNA encourages cancer growth and metastasis

August 21, 2017
A mechanism that pushes a certain gene to produce a non-coding form of RNA instead of its protein-coding alternative can promote the growth of cancer, report researchers at the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) ...

Spaser can detect, kill circulating tumor cells to prevent cancer metastases, study finds

August 21, 2017
A nanolaser known as the spaser can serve as a super-bright, water-soluble, biocompatible probe capable of finding metastasized cancer cells in the blood stream and then killing these cells, according to a new research study.

Comprehensive genomic analysis offers insights into causes of Wilms tumor development

August 21, 2017
A comprehensive genomic analysis of Wilms tumor - the most common kidney cancer in children - found genetic mutations involving a large number of genes that fall into two major categories. These categories involve cellular ...

Comparison of screening recommendations indicates annual mammography

August 21, 2017
When to initiate screening for breast cancer, how often to screen, and how long to screen are questions that continue to spark emotional debates. A new study compares the number of deaths that might be prevented as a result ...

Vitamin C may encourage blood cancer stem cells to die

August 17, 2017
Vitamin C may "tell" faulty stem cells in the bone marrow to mature and die normally, instead of multiplying to cause blood cancers. This is the finding of a study led by researchers from Perlmutter Cancer Center at NYU Langone ...

Outdoor light at night linked with increased breast cancer risk in women

August 17, 2017
Women who live in areas with higher levels of outdoor light at night may be at higher risk for breast cancer than those living in areas with lower levels, according to a large long-term study from Harvard T.H. Chan School ...


Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.