Bilingualism may save brain resources as you age

January 9, 2017, University of Montreal
Credit: Wikimedia Commons

New research findings show that bilingual people are great at saving brain power, that is. To do a task, the brain recruits different networks, or the highways on which different types of information flow, depending on the task to be done. The team of Ana Inés Ansaldo, PhD, a researcher at the Centre de recherche de l'Institut universitaire de gériatrie de Montréal and a professor at Université de Montréal, compared what are known as functional brain connections between seniors who are monolingual and seniors who are bilingual. Her team established that years of bilingualism change how the brain carries out tasks that require concentrating on one piece of information without becoming distracted by other information. This makes the brain more efficient and economical with its resources.

To arrive at this finding, Dr. Ansaldo's team asked two groups of seniors (one of monolinguals and one of bilinguals) to perform a that involved focusing on visual while ignoring . The researchers compared the networks between different areas as people did the task. They found that monolinguals recruited a larger circuit with multiple connections, whereas bilinguals recruited a smaller circuit that was more appropriate for the required information. These findings were published in the Journal of Neurolinguistics.

Two different ways of doing the same task

The participants did a task that required them to focus on (the colour of an object) while ignoring spatial information (the position of the object). The research team observed that the monolingual brain allocates a number of regions linked to visual and motor function and interference control, which are located in the frontal lobes. This means that the monolingual brain needs to recruit multiple brain regions to do the task.

"After years of daily practice managing interference between two languages, bilinguals become experts at selecting relevant information and ignoring information that can distract from a task. In this case, bilinguals showed higher connectivity between visual processing areas located at the back of the brain. This area is specialized in detecting the visual characteristics of objects and therefore is specialized in the task used in this study. These data indicate that the bilingual brain is more efficient and economical, as it recruits fewer regions and only specialized regions," explained Dr. Ansaldo.

Bilinguals have a double advantage as they age

Bilinguals therefore have two cognitive benefits. First, having more centralized and specialized functional connections saves resources compared to the multiple and more diverse brain areas allocated by monolinguals to accomplish the same task. Second, bilinguals achieve the same result by not using the brain's frontal regions, which are vulnerable to aging. This may explain why the brains of are better equipped at staving off the signs of cognitive aging or dementia.

"We have observed that bilingualism has a concrete impact on brain function and that this may have a positive impact on cognitive aging. We now need to study how this function translates to daily life, for example, when concentrating on one source of information instead of another, which is something we have to do every day. And we have yet to discover all the benefits of bilingualism," concluded Dr. Ansaldo.

Explore further: Study shows cognitive benefit of lifelong bilingualism

More information: Pierre Berroir et al, Interference control at the response level: Functional networks reveal higher efficiency in the bilingual brain, Journal of Neurolinguistics (2016). DOI: 10.1016/j.jneuroling.2016.09.007

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humy
not rated yet Jan 09, 2017
""After years of daily practice managing interference between two languages, bilinguals become experts at selecting relevant information and ignoring information that can distract from a task...."

Err, HOW do the researches know that people that are better at "selecting relevant information and ignoring information that can distract from a task" aren't far more likely to become bilinguals BECAUSE of that i.e. that ability is what CAUSES them to be bilinguals rather than it being the EFFECT as opposed to that ability being the EFFECT of being bilingual rather than being its CAUSE?
i.e. HOW did they come up with the conclusion that causality happens in that direction rather than in the opposite direction they assert it does?
In science one should not to jump to conclusion about the direction or type of casual relations between two things that are linked. A link should NOT to be confused with causally. Example; day always follows night so they are clearly linked; so night causes day?
postfuture
not rated yet Jan 19, 2017
@humy - at most cases people do not learn a second language unless the HAVE to. I suspect that most people from bilingual senior citizens group were immigrants. Also it is Montreal, Canada where again they speak English and French. Although then you can doubt may be people from different countries have generally different abilities because of various unknown factors, etc., etc.

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