What you need to know about cholesterol
"Good cholesterol—high-density lipoprotein [HDL]—recycles cholesterol and fat in the body," said Dr. Alex Garton. He's a noninvasive cardiologist from PinnacleHealth CardioVascular Institute, based in central Pennsylvania.
"What we call bad cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein [LDL], is 'bad' because any leftover LDL is deposited into the blood vessels, increasing the risk of vascular disease. HDL can help prevent this by 'recycling' excess amounts of bad cholesterol," Garton explained in an institute news release.
LDL levels should generally be kept below 130 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) of blood. But a level of 100 mg/dL is considered "optimal," the U.S. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute says.
HDL levels should be above 40 mg/dL, the NHLBI says. And, levels above 60 mg/dL are even better.
But cholesterol levels are only part of the overall picture, Garton said.
"Smoking cigarettes, having high blood pressure or having a family history of early heart disease can also increase a patient's cholesterol-related risks. These factors actually lower the LDL cholesterol number that signifies a patient is at risk for heart disease," he said.
Other factors can increase the risk from lower LDL levels. These include diabetes, obesity and a family history of unhealthy cholesterol levels, Garton said.
He noted that high cholesterol often causes no symptoms. That means regular screening is the best way to protect yourself.
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