How can job loss be bad for health, and recession be good for it?

September 1, 2017 by Ann Huff Stevens, The Conversation
Several studies have shown that health suffers after being laid off, as fear and anxiety lead to stress. Credit: VGstockstudio/Shutterstock.com

There's no better time than Labor Day to think about the critical role that work – both our own jobs and the labor of others – plays in all of our lives. But this role is surprisingly complex: While job loss and unemployment can cause individuals' own health to suffer, studies have shown that mortality rates go down during a recession.

Understanding this seeming contradiction forces us to think not only about how our own employment affects health, but also about how the labor and working conditions of others can affect us all.

My own research in economics with co-author Jessamyn Schaller shows that in the immediate aftermath of , workers report worse mental and physical health. Those with preexisting chronic conditions, who may be relatively heavy users of prior to job loss, become less likely to visit the doctor or obtain prescription drugs. But there's more to the story than this.

Laid-off workers much more likely to die early

The link between work and health can be dramatic. Economists Daniel Sullivan and Til von Wachter have shown that U.S. workers who lose in mass layoffs have death rates in the years just after the layoff that are 50 percent higher than similar workers who did not lose jobs.

The same study showed that, even 20 years later, these displaced workers had elevated death rates. While the mechanisms at work here are not fully understood, reductions in income, income uncertainty and the associated stress are thought to drive these negative .

Both of these studies address the possibility that workers who are already in poor health may be more likely to suffer job loss. If this is the case, poor health could lead to unemployment rather than the reverse. Our work on shorter-term health effects looked only at outcomes that could be measured both before and after job loss to be sure that the health effects appeared only after the job loss.

Research using mass layoffs also guards against reverse causality, the idea that poor health leads to unemployment rather than the reverse. They do this by focusing on major mass layoff events where unhealthy individual workers are unlikely to have been chosen for layoffs. Further, Sullivan and von Wachter showed that firms with a greater ability to select particular workers for layoff did not seem to lay off less healthy employees.

An unexpected twist

The more surprising part of the relationship between health and unemployment flips the initial pattern of job loss leading to on its head.

A series of studies, many by economist Christopher Ruhm, shows compelling and surprising evidence that "recessions are good for your health." More specifically, they show that mortality is lower when unemployment is relatively high. While this link may have weakened somewhat in the past decade, it is robust across a number of studies including data from the 1970s through the early 2000s.

How can, or could, this finding coexist with what we know about the harm of individual job loss?

A key point is that, even in the worst years of a recession, most workers remain employed and so are not subject to the negative effects of individual job loss. Which begs a question: What factors could explain the beneficial health effects of a recession?

Possible explanations

We've long known that when there is less economic activity (as in a recession) there are fewer cars and commercial vehicles on the road, and so fewer traffic deaths. Motor vehicle accidents, however, are too small a fraction of all deaths to fully explain the pattern of increased mortality during recessions.

Research has also suggested that individuals may engage in more positive health behaviors, including getting more exercise and seeing the doctor more often, when hours of work decline.

Many of us work less during bad economic times because of reduced hours, fewer work assignments or less overtime. Working a bit less would certainly benefit some, but that does not change the fact that having no access to paid work is also quite stressful.

Finally, pollution may decline during times of reduced productive activity like recessions, and less pollution could mean in fewer respiratory-related health problems and deaths.

One limitation of these explanations for the surprising connection between recessions and mortality is that none can adequately explain mortality patterns among the elderly. Because most deaths, of course, occur among the elderly, we need an explanation that applies to older individuals, who account for most of the aggregate .

A subtle difference, an important finding

That brings us to a final explanation, one that forces us to think more squarely about the role that others' work opportunities and choices may have on our own quality of life.

My colleagues and I showed that during times of low unemployment, employment of direct-care health workers, such as nursing aides and other health aides, declines. These are often physically and emotionally demanding, low-paid, high-turnover jobs.

When these workers have other options, in good economic times, they take them.

As a result, in times of low unemployment, nursing homes are far less likely to be fully staffed with front-line patient care workers. In a weak economy, staff may be better trained, and there may be less frequent turnover. Our work connects this to mortality by showing that most of the responsiveness of to unemployment rates occurs among the elderly living in nursing homes. This is precisely where staff vacancies can be acute during good economic times. Hard times may improve the quality of health care and reduce mortality by making it easier to recruit and retain workers.

This is a powerful illustration that not only is our own work critical to our well-being, but the work and working conditions of others affect us as well, sometimes in surprising ways.

Labor Day celebrates the contributions of American workers and should remind us that disruptions in the labor market can have powerful effects on individuals' lives and . During good times, vacancies in critical occupations, even when driven by better options elsewhere, may be bad news for some.

Explore further: Joblessness could kill you, but recessions could be good for your health

Related Stories

Joblessness could kill you, but recessions could be good for your health

July 24, 2014
Being unemployed increases your risk of death, but recessions decrease it. Sound paradoxical? Researchers thought so too.

Unemployment linked to rise in prostate cancer deaths

May 14, 2015
The knock-on effects of the economic downturn have been explored in economy and psychology. Now researchers are examining the effects of unemployment on an even darker subject - cancer mortality.

Mental illness prescriptions increase during recession, says study

September 20, 2013
(Medical Xpress)—Perhaps surprisingly, public health overall improves during economic recessions. Fewer people die, fewer heart attacks are reported and general morbidity decreases, according to research from the World ...

Recommended for you

Teen personality traits linked to risk of death from any cause 50 years later

November 20, 2018
Personality traits evident as early as the teenage years may be linked to a heightened or lessened risk of death around 50 years later, suggests observational research of 'baby boomers,' published online in the Journal of ...

One in four U.S. adults sits more than eight hours a day

November 20, 2018
(HealthDay)—Couch Potato Nation: Nearly half of Americans sit for far too many hours a day and don't get any exercise at all, a new study finds.

Emotional abuse may be linked with menopause misery

November 19, 2018
Smoking, obesity and a sedentary lifestyle have long been linked to heightened symptoms of menopause. Now, a study headed by UC San Francisco has identified another factor that may add to menopause torment: an emotionally ...

Bullying and violence at work increases the risk of cardiovascular disease

November 19, 2018
People who are bullied at work or experience violence at work are at higher risk of heart and brain blood vessel problems, including heart attacks and stroke, according to the largest prospective study to investigate the ...

How AI could help veterinarians code their notes

November 19, 2018
A team led by scientists at the School of Medicine has developed an algorithm that can read the typed-out notes from veterinarians and predict specific diseases that the animal may have.

US paves way to get 'lab meat' on plates

November 17, 2018
US authorities on Friday agreed on how to regulate food products cultured from animal cells—paving the way to get so-called "lab meat" on American plates.

0 comments

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.