Respiratory experts urge rethink of 'outdated' asthma categorisation

September 12, 2017 by Ryan O'hare, Imperial College London
Credit: Imperial College London

A group of respiratory medicine experts have called for an overhaul of how asthma and other airways diseases are categorised and treated.

The team, which includes researchers from the University of Oxford and Imperial College London, says the current approach is outdated and does not reflect advances in treating these conditions.

Outlining their views in a specially commissioned article in The Lancet, the 23 international experts – co-chaired by University of Oxford Professor of Respiratory Medicine Ian Pavord, and Andy Bush, Professor of Paediatric Respirology at Imperial –  say that progress in treating asthma has slowed in the past 10 years despite increased spending on treatments, and has not matched that enjoyed in other medical fields.

"We believe that the most important cause of this stagnation is a continued reliance on outdated and unhelpful labels, treatment and research frameworks, and monitoring strategies, which have reached the stage of unchallenged veneration and have subsequently stifled new thinking," the experts in the Lancet Commission say.

Asthma is responsible for considerable global morbidity and health-care costs. A study by Asthma UK last year found that asthma costs the UK health service at least £1.1 billion each year, and that more than 270 people are admitted to hospital each day because of asthma attacks.

Slow progress

Professor Pavord, who leads the Respiratory Theme of the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Oxford Biomedical Research Centre (BRC), said: "Despite considerable progress being made against key outcomes such as mortality and hospital admissions in the 1990s and early 2000s, we've seen far too little progress in the past 10 years, despite escalating treatment costs and the availability of highly effective treatments."

"This Commission has sought to identify entrenched areas of asthma management and treatment in which progress has stalled, and to challenge current principles. It's a call to action for all clinicians involved in this field."

Writing in The Lancet, the authors argue that the physiology-based classification system for airways diseases is obsolete because it provides a limited view of the distinct causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with asthma.

Instead, they believe airways diseases should be deconstructed into traits that can be measured and, in some cases, modified.

A new approach

Looking at how this new approach can be made a reality in all healthcare settings, the commission calls for a fundamental rethink of the current guidelines, with greater emphasis on traits that can be measured and treated, and less emphasis on arbitrary disease labels.

This means that inhaled corticosteroids – the standard for controlling – would be used in a more targeted and efficient way, based on biomarkers, and should not be escalated unless the biomarker profile suggests treatment will be successful.

In addition, they call for a rethink around how asthma attacks are treated, arguing that should be considered as a prompt for "thorough re-evaluation of asthma management in the patient".

Finally, the respiratory experts call for an ambitious "revolution in thinking about asthma that is generalisable to all airways diseases". This would lead to the delivery of better and more precise care to each patient, separating airways diseases into component parts and addressing each in turn, stratified by risk.

Commenting on the findings, Professor Bush said: "Challenging how we think about asthma and how the condition is classified will, we believe, lead to an important step change in the management of the disease. 

"We want patients to be asking 'what sort of asthma do I have?', just as a patient with red, painful joints will ask 'what sort of arthritis do I have?', because we believe asthma is a clinical description of symptoms, for which there are many different causes.

He added: "Ultimately, by looking at the components of airway disease in each individual, rather than being satisfied with the umbrella term 'asthma', we believe  will enable treatment to be personalised allowing patients  of all ages living with asthma to lead fuller, healthier lives."

Professor Pavord concluded: "This commission feels it is time for a new era in , where it is more about getting the right to the right – so, a precision medicine approach rather than the one-size-fits-all approach we've been doing up until now."

Explore further: Study compares treatment and outcomes in asthma patients in two countries

More information: Ian D Pavord et al. After asthma: redefining airways diseases, The Lancet (2017). DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)30879-6

Related Stories

Study compares treatment and outcomes in asthma patients in two countries

August 9, 2017
In two countries with a Western lifestyle, similar health systems, and similar asthma prevalence, investigators observed differences in asthma management and treatment costs, despite comparable outcomes.

Maternal uncontrolled asthma ups risk of asthma in offspring

July 17, 2017
(HealthDay)—Children whose mothers have uncontrolled asthma during pregnancy are at increased risk of developing the disease at a young age, according to a study published online July 13 in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical ...

Study links optimal asthma control with reduced health-care costs

November 10, 2016
In a study of 736 asthma patients in Singapore, good asthma control resulted in a saving of S$65 (US$48) per physician visit. Compared with an average cost of S$214 (US$158) per visit, this reduction represents a cost saving ...

Study brings hope of a new treatment for asthma sufferers

March 1, 2017
Improved treatments for people with severe asthma are a 'step closer' after a research team led by the University of Leicester identified a breakthrough in the cause of airway narrowing.

There's fun and fitness in the pool for asthmatic kids

February 20, 2017
(HealthDay)—Safe, healthy fun for kids with asthma may be as near as the neighborhood pool, one respiratory specialist says.

Bitter taste receptors hold key to treating asthma

April 27, 2017
One in nine Australians, among more than 300 million people worldwide, suffer from asthma. They experience a wide range of debilitating, even life-threatening respiratory symptoms from a disease that can be controlled but ...

Recommended for you

New drug therapy could lead to more effective treatment for millions with asthma

February 7, 2018
Rutgers New Jersey Medical School researchers identified a new treatment that could lead to more effective drug therapy for millions of individuals with asthma and other respiratory disorders such as chronic obstruction pulmonary ...

Chronic inflammation causes loss of muscle mass during aging

January 12, 2018
People start losing muscle mass at the age of 40—about some 10 percent of the total muscle mass for each 10-year period, which may lead to fall-related injuries, slowing metabolism and reduced quality of life. Today, very ...

Breathing exercises help asthma patients with quality of life

December 13, 2017
A study led by the University of Southampton has found that people who continue to get problems from their asthma, despite receiving standard treatment, experience an improved quality of life when they are taught breathing ...

Study highlights the need for research into prevention of inflammatory bowel disease

December 7, 2017
Countries in Africa, Asia, the Middle East and South America have seen a rise in incidence of inflammatory bowel disease as they have become increasingly industrialised and westernised, a new study has found.

Air pollution can increase asthma risk in adults, even at low levels

November 24, 2017
Living close to a busy road can be bad for your respiratory health if you are middle aged, new Australian research has found.

Evidence found of oral bacteria contributing to bowel disorders

October 20, 2017
(Medical Xpress)—An international team of researchers has found evidence that suggests certain types of oral bacteria may cause or exacerbate bowel disorders. In their paper published in the journal Science, the group describes ...


Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.