Surfers three times more likely to have antibiotic-resistant bacteria in guts

January 14, 2018, University of Exeter
Dr. Anne Leonard interviews surfers on a beach in Cornwall, UK. Credit: University of Exeter

Regular surfers and bodyboarders are three times more likely to have antibiotic resistant E. coli in their guts than non-surfers, new research has revealed.

Conducted by the University of Exeter, the Beach Bums study asked 300 people, half of whom regularly surf the UK's coastline, to take rectal swabs. Surfers swallow ten times more sea water than sea swimmers, and scientists wanted to find out if that made them more vulnerable to bacteria that pollute seawater, and whether those bacteria are resistant to an antibiotic.

Scientists compared faecal samples from surfers and non-surfers to assess whether the surfers' guts contained E. coli bacteria that were able to grow in the presence of cefotaxime, a commonly used and clinically important antibiotic. Cefotaxime has previously been prescribed to kill off these bacteria, but some have acquired genes that enable them to survive this treatment.

The study, published today (January 14) in the journal Environment International, found that 13 of 143 (9%) of surfers were colonised by these resistant bacteria, compared to just four of 130 (3%) of non-surfers swabbed. That meant that the bacteria would continue to grow even if treated with cefotaxime.

Researchers also found that regular surfers were four times as likely to harbour bacteria that contain mobile genes that make bacteria resistant to the antibiotic. This is significant because the genes can be passed between bacteria - potentially spreading the ability to resist antibiotic treatment between bacteria. Recently, the UN Environment Assembly recognised the spread of antibiotic resistance in the environment as one of the world's greatest emerging environmental concerns.

Dr Anne Leonard, of the University of Exeter Medical School, who led the research, said: "Antimicrobial resistance has been globally recognised as one of the greatest health challenges of our time, and there is now an increasing focus on how resistance can be spread through our natural environments. We urgently need to know more about how humans are exposed to these bacteria and how they colonise our guts. This research is the first of its kind to identify an association between surfing and gut colonisation by antibiotic resistant bacteria."

Dr. Anne Leonard interviews surfers on a beach in Cornwall, UK. Credit: University of Exeter

Despite extensive operations to clean up coastal waters and beaches, bacteria which are potentially harmful to humans still enters the coastal environment through sewage and waste pollution from sources including water run-off from farm crops treated with manure. In the paper, the authors demonstrated the prevalence of cefotaxime-resistant E. coli in UK bathing waters as well as the prevalence of the mobile resistance gene that make bacteria cefotaxime resistant. They estimated that over 2.5 million water sports sessions occurred in England and Wales in 2015 which involved ingestion of E. coli bacteria harbouring these mobile resistance genes. They found that surfers are particularly vulnerable to ingesting the bacteria because they swallow up to ten times more water than sea swimmers.

The World Health Organization has warned that we may be entering an era in which are no longer effective to kill simple, and previously treatable, bacterial infections. This would mean that infections such as pneumonia, tuberculosis, blood poisoning, gonorrhoea, and food and waterborne diseases could be fatal. It would also mean that it would no longer be possible to use antibiotics to prevent infections in routine medical procedures, such as joint replacements and chemotherapy.

The 2016 O'Neill report commissioned by the UK government estimated that antimicrobial resistant infections could kill one person every three seconds by the year 2050 if current trends continue.

Up to now, solutions on addressing the issue have largely focussed on prescribing and use. However, increasing priority is being placed on the role of the environment in spreading the problem in addition to transmission within hospitals, between people and via food.

Dr Will Gaze, of the University of Exeter Medical School, supervised the research. He said: "We are not seeking to discourage people from spending time in the sea, an activity which has a lot of benefits in terms of exercise, wellbeing and connecting with nature. It is important that people understand the risks involved so that they can make informed decisions about their bathing and sporting habits. We now hope that our results will help policy-makers, beach managers, and water companies to make evidence-based decisions to improve water quality even further for the benefit of public health."

The marine conservation charity Surfers Against Sewage, which is at the forefront of protecting bathing and was involved in recruiting surfers to take part in the study.. Science and Policy Officer David Smith said: "While this research highlights an emerging threat to and bodyboarders in the UK it should not prevent people from heading to our coasts. Water quality in the UK has improved vastly in the past 30 years and is some of the cleanest in Europe. Recognising coastal waters as a pathway for antibiotic resistance can allow policy makers to make changes to protect water users and the wider public from the threat of antibiotic resistance. We would always recommend users check the Safer Seas Service before heading to the sea to avoid any pollution incidents and ensure the best possible experience in the UK's ."

Explore further: UN warns of drug-resistant germ risk brewing in nature (Update)

Related Stories

UN warns of drug-resistant germ risk brewing in nature (Update)

December 5, 2017
The UN warned Tuesday of a ticking time bomb of drug-resistant germs brewing in the natural environment, aided by humans dumping antibiotics and chemicals into the water and soil.

Recommended for you

Lung-on-a-chip simulates pulmonary fibrosis

May 25, 2018
Developing new medicines to treat pulmonary fibrosis, one of the most common and serious forms of lung disease, is not easy.

Reconstructing Zika's spread

May 24, 2018
The urgent threat from Zika virus, which dominated news headlines in the spring and summer of 2016, has passed for now. But research into how Zika and other mosquito-borne infections spread and cause epidemics is still very ...

Tick bite protection: New CDC study adds to the promise of permethrin-treated clothing

May 24, 2018
The case for permethrin-treated clothing to prevent tick bites keeps getting stronger.

Molecular network boosts drug resistance and virulence in hospital-acquired bacterium

May 24, 2018
In response to antibiotics, a gene regulation network found in the bacterium Acinetobacter baumannii acts to boost both virulence and antibiotic resistance. Edward Geisinger of Tufts University School of Medicine and colleagues ...

Past use of disinfectants and PPE for Ebola could inform future outbreaks

May 24, 2018
Data from the 2014 Ebola virus outbreak at two Sierra Leone facilities reveal daily usage rates for disinfectant and personal protective equipment, informing future outbreaks, according to a study published May 24, 2018 in ...

Early lactate measurements appear to improve results for septic patients

May 24, 2018
On October 1, 2015, the United States Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) issued a bundle of recommendations defining optimal treatment of patients suffering from sepsis, a life-threatening response to infection ...

3 comments

Adjust slider to filter visible comments by rank

Display comments: newest first

rrwillsj
1 / 5 (1) Jan 15, 2018
I agree the pollution turns an ocean into a cess-pool. Added to the natural micro-flora and fauna that render the ocean a petri-dish of virulent evolution.

However, on top of all that , have you ever seen, or for that matter, smelled? What these guys are eating? You wouldn't think 'cast-iron' stomachs could float!
Dug
not rated yet Jan 16, 2018
Yet, this doesn't change the fact that greatest abundance of antibiotic restrains strains of pathogenic bacteria originate in hospitals and nursing homes - where immune system weakened patients unavoidably allow them to develop antibiotic resistance. Of course if the local municipalities dump their raw sewage in the inshore waters of a surfing beach - they would be there, too. Perhaps this is a great indictment of the lack of enforcement of pollution laws. Perhaps if local and Federal EPA administrators started to be charged with criminal endangerment and or manslaughter and or negligent homicide - where people die from anti-biotic resistant bacteria in public bathing areas - things might change.
rrwillsj
1 / 5 (1) Jan 17, 2018
Uhhmm, Dug? You rather got this article backwards? It is easy to cast aspersions and blame when you do not accept your own part in the "Tragedy of the Commons'.

We all pollute. We all contribute our own personal disease vectors to everybody else. Since most people are unwilling to accept responsibility and especially not pay to alleviate the problems?

What dictatorial authority do you believe could fix these dangers to all of us? How much more are you willing to pay from your income for the taxes that would be needed to expand Public Health Services and Sanitation infrastructure?

Are you prepared to be personally monitored and instructed as too your personal habits and bodily functions? Cause I seriously doubt if anyone in the health professions have any enthusiasm for such a tedious role.

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.