Psychology & Psychiatry

Mean or nice? These traits could make or break a child's friendships

Not all friendships are created equal. Some friends get along; others struggle to avoid conflict. Conventional wisdom holds that the tenor of a friendship with someone who is nice differs from that with someone who is mean, ...

Psychology & Psychiatry

Harmful alcohol use rising during pandemic

The ongoing pandemic has had a significant and alarming trend of increased alcohol use and abuse—especially among younger adults, males and those who have lost their jobs—according to a new study by University of Arizona ...

Psychology & Psychiatry

Most teen bullying occurs among peers climbing the social ladder

Teens who bully, harass, or otherwise victimize their peers are not always lashing out in reaction to psychological problems or unhealthy home environments, but are often using aggression strategically to climb their school's ...

Psychology & Psychiatry

Laughter isn't always the best medicine for work stress

Humor helps us deal with the stress of juggling work and family commitments, but only when we seek it out, according to a new study led by The Australian National University (ANU).

Aggression

In psychology, as well as other social and behavioral sciences, aggression refers to behavior between members of the same species that is intended to cause pain or harm. Predatory or defensive behavior between members of different species is not normally considered "aggression." Aggression takes a variety of forms among humans and can be physical, mental, or verbal. Aggression should not be confused with assertiveness, although the terms are often used interchangeably among laypeople, e.g. an aggressive salesperson.

There are two broad categories of aggression. These include hostile, affective, or retaliatory aggression and instrumental, predatory, or goal-oriented aggression. Empirical research indicates that there is a critical difference between the two, both psychologically and physiologically. Some research indicates that people with tendencies toward affective aggression have lower IQs than those with tendencies toward predatory aggression. If only considering physical aggression, males tend to be more aggressive than females. One explanation for this difference is that females are physically weaker than men, and so need to resort to other means.

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