News tagged with autophagy

Related topics: protein

Bringing natural killer cells to the tumor battlefield

Natural Killer (NK) cells, lymphocytes of the innate immune system with strong cytotoxic activity, play a major role in the immune response against tumors. However, tumor cells can circumvent this immune defense by establishing ...

Nov 08, 2017
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A pathogenic mechanism in motoneuron disease

Motor neurons are the nerves that send impulses to the muscles to generate movement. Damage of these neurons can cause very diverse diseases, for example spinal muscular atrophy in children or adult amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Nov 02, 2017
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Gut response to fluid flow

Flow of fluids through the gut, such as milk from an infant's diet, generates a shear stress on cells lining the intestine. Ken Lau, Ph.D., and colleagues have demonstrated that microvilli – finger-like membrane protrusions ...

Oct 27, 2017
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Autophagy

In cell biology, autophagy, or autophagocytosis, is a catabolic process involving the degradation of a cell's own components through the lysosomal machinery. It is a tightly regulated process that plays a normal part in cell growth, development, and homeostasis, helping to maintain a balance between the synthesis, degradation, and subsequent recycling of cellular products. It is a major mechanism by which a starving cell reallocates nutrients from unnecessary processes to more-essential processes.

A variety of autophagic processes exist, all having in common the degradation of intracellular components via the lysosome. The most well-known mechanism of autophagy involves the formation of a membrane around a targeted region of the cell, separating the contents from the rest of the cytoplasm. The resultant vesicle then fuses with a lysosome and subsequently degrades the contents.

It was first described in the 1960s, but many questions about the actual processes and mechanisms involved still remain to be elucidated. Its role in disease is not well categorized; it may help to prevent or halt the progression of some diseases such as some types of neurodegeneration and cancer, and play a protective role against infection by intracellular pathogens; however, in some situations, it may actually contribute to the development of a disease.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA

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