Neuroscience

Discovery of a novel way synapses can regulate neuronal circuits

The fundamental process of information transfer from neuron to neuron occurs through a relay of electrical and chemical signaling at the synapse, the junction between neurons. Electrical signals, called action potentials, ...

Cardiology

Treatment for underdiagnosed cause of debilitating chest pain

Patients who arrive at the hospital with heart-attack-like symptoms have had little recourse for their chest pain if scans came back clear, with no signs of blocked coronary arteries. Some of these cases are caused by a little-known ...

Health

The lowdown on low-fat milk (It's all good)

(HealthDay)—Calcium is best known as a building block of strong bones, and studies show that getting it from the source—milk—is more effective than supplements.

Medical research

Skeletal imitation reveals how bones grow atom-by-atom

Researchers from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, have discovered how our bones grow at an atomic level, showing how an unstructured mass orders itself into a perfectly arranged bone structure. The discovery offers ...

Medical research

Mutations, CRISPR, and the biology behind movement disorders

Scientists at the RIKEN Center for Brain Science (CBS) in Japan have discovered how mutations related to a group of movement disorders produce their effects. Published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the ...

Neuroscience

Concussion-related biomarkers vary based on sex, race

(HealthDay)—Concussion-related serum biomarkers vary by sex and race, which may complicate their interpretation, according to three studies published online Nov. 7 in Neurology.

Medical research

Study opens new therapeutic avenue for mitochondria malfunction

A surprising offender has been emerging to drive the progression of Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, Huntington's and other neurodegenerative diseases: calcium. Calcium controls the production of fuel in mitochondria, the cell's ...

Neuroscience

Surfing on calcium waves: A larva's journey to becoming a fly

Eric Carl, in his much-loved children's book The Very Hungry Caterpillar, documents the transformation of a gluttonous caterpillar into a beautiful butterfly. For a scientist, metamorphosis poses many unaddressed questions. ...

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Calcium

Calcium (pronounced /ˈkælsiəm/) is the chemical element with the symbol Ca and atomic number 20. It has an atomic mass of 40.078 amu. Calcium is a soft grey alkaline earth metal, and is the fifth most abundant element by mass in the Earth's crust. Calcium is also the fifth most abundant dissolved ion in seawater by both molarity and mass, after sodium, chloride, magnesium, and sulfate.

Calcium is essential for living organisms, particularly in cell physiology, where movement of the calcium ion Ca2+ into and out of the cytoplasm functions as a signal for many cellular processes. As a major material used in mineralization of bones and shells, calcium is the most abundant metal by mass in many animals.

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