News tagged with cancer cells

Related topics: cancer · breast cancer · cells · tumor cells · protein

Cracks in the armor of therapy-resistant cancer cells

A new study shows that cancer cells across multiple lineages can adopt the same therapy-resistant cell state, enabling broad resistance to targeted therapies. However, the resulting cell circuitry also results in a vulnerability ...

Jul 06, 2017
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New brain cancer drug targets revealed

Researchers from Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and The Cleveland Clinic designed a way to screen brain tumor cells and identify potential drug targets missed by other methods. The team successfully used ...

Jul 05, 2017
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Watch cancer spread in a mouse

Researchers in Japan have developed a method to image cancer at the single-cell level by using chemical techniques to make whole mouse bodies and organs highly transparent. Combining their preparation with existing imaging ...

Jul 05, 2017
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Mapping genes could improve cancer diagnosis

Large-scale changes to the structure of the genome are often seen in cancer cells. Scientists at the Babraham Institute in Cambridge, UK, have found a way to detect these changes, which could enhance cancer diagnosis and ...

Jul 04, 2017
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Timing of mutation determines the outcome

A single genetic mutation can lead to completely different diseases, depending on the time and location at which the mutation occurs. This finding emerged from the PhD study conducted by Rocio Acuña-Hidalgo of Radboudumc. ...

Jun 30, 2017
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New bowel cancer drug starts clinical trials

Today, a new drug will become available for patients with bowel cancer as part of a national clinical trial; based on a scientific discovery made only two years ago at the CRUK/MRC Oxford Institute for Radiation Oncology.

Jun 30, 2017
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Development of RNAi-based anti-cancer therapeutics

Understanding the interactions between miRNAs with their specific cancer gene targets is an on-going effort to identify new therapeutic strategies. Researchers from University of Malaya carried out investigations to study ...

Jun 30, 2017
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Cancer

Cancer (medical term: malignant neoplasm) is a class of diseases in which a group of cells display uncontrolled growth (division beyond the normal limits), invasion (intrusion on and destruction of adjacent tissues), and sometimes metastasis (spread to other locations in the body via lymph or blood). These three malignant properties of cancers differentiate them from benign tumors, which are self-limited, and do not invade or metastasize. Most cancers form a tumor but some, like leukemia, do not. The branch of medicine concerned with the study, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of cancer is oncology.

Cancer may affect people at all ages, even fetuses, but the risk for most varieties increases with age. Cancer causes about 13% of all human deaths. According to the American Cancer Society, 7.6 million people died from cancer in the world during 2007. Cancers can affect all animals.

Nearly all cancers are caused by abnormalities in the genetic material of the transformed cells. These abnormalities may be due to the effects of carcinogens, such as tobacco smoke, radiation, chemicals, or infectious agents. Other cancer-promoting genetic abnormalities may be randomly acquired through errors in DNA replication, or are inherited, and thus present in all cells from birth. The heritability of cancers are usually affected by complex interactions between carcinogens and the host's genome. New aspects of the genetics of cancer pathogenesis, such as DNA methylation, and microRNAs are increasingly recognized as important.

Genetic abnormalities found in cancer typically affect two general classes of genes. Cancer-promoting oncogenes are typically activated in cancer cells, giving those cells new properties, such as hyperactive growth and division, protection against programmed cell death, loss of respect for normal tissue boundaries, and the ability to become established in diverse tissue environments. Tumor suppressor genes are then inactivated in cancer cells, resulting in the loss of normal functions in those cells, such as accurate DNA replication, control over the cell cycle, orientation and adhesion within tissues, and interaction with protective cells of the immune system.

Diagnosis usually requires the histologic examination of a tissue biopsy specimen by a pathologist, although the initial indication of malignancy can be symptoms or radiographic imaging abnormalities. Most cancers can be treated and some cured, depending on the specific type, location, and stage. Once diagnosed, cancer is usually treated with a combination of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. As research develops, treatments are becoming more specific for different varieties of cancer. There has been significant progress in the development of targeted therapy drugs that act specifically on detectable molecular abnormalities in certain tumors, and which minimize damage to normal cells. The prognosis of cancer patients is most influenced by the type of cancer, as well as the stage, or extent of the disease. In addition, histologic grading and the presence of specific molecular markers can also be useful in establishing prognosis, as well as in determining individual treatments.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA

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