Medical research

Researchers Uncover Protein's Role In Cell Division

(PhysOrg.com) -- A Florida State University researcher has identified the important role that a key protein plays in cell division, and that discovery could lead to a greater understanding of stem cells.

Medical research

Where injured nerve cells heal their bones

(PhysOrg.com) -- Microtubules are small protein tubes that give cells their structure and enable both their growth and division. It was assumed up to now that microtubules are formed by the centrosome, a cell organelle localised ...

Centrosome

In cell biology, the centrosome is an organelle that serves as the main microtubule organizing center (MTOC) of the animal cell as well as a regulator of cell-cycle progression. It was discovered by Edouard Van Beneden in 1883 and was described and named in 1888 by Theodor Boveri. In the theory of evolution the centrosome is thought to have evolved only in the metazoan lineage of eukaryotic cells. Fungi and plants use other MTOC structures to organize their microtubules. Although the centrosome has a key role in efficient mitosis in animal cells, it is not essential.

Centrosomes are composed of two orthogonally arranged centrioles surrounded by an amorphous mass of protein termed the pericentriolar material (PCM). The PCM contains proteins responsible for microtubule nucleation and anchoring including γ-tubulin, pericentrin and ninein. In general, each centriole of the centrosome is based on a nine triplet microtubule assembled in a cartwheel structure, and contains centrin, cenexin and tektin.

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