Psychology & Psychiatry

Highly specific synaptic plasticity in addiction

Addiction, or substance use disorder (SUD), is a complex neurological condition that includes drug-seeking behavior among other cognitive, emotional and behavioral features. Synaptic plasticity, or changes in the way neurons ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Impaired blood clotting may explain higher COVID-19 risk

A new review suggests that higher-than-normal levels of an enzyme involved in blood clot prevention may be a common risk factor for developing COVID-19—a respiratory disease caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2—in ...

Immunology

Insights into a versatile molecular death switch

The enzyme caspase-8 induces a molecular cell death programme called pyroptosis without involving its enzymatic activity, a new study by Hamid Kashkar published in Nature shows. In order to safeguard healthy and functioning ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Researchers discover molecule involved in the repair of liver wounds

A new study from researchers of CEDOC-NOVA Medical School|Faculdade de Ciências Médicas and Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência, led by Maria Paula Macedo and Carlos Penha-Gonçalves, respectively, showed that a molecule CD26/DPP-4 ...

Oncology & Cancer

Researchers discover a potential new target for cancer treatment

Dr. Florian Weinberg, from Prof. Dr. Tilman Brummer's research group at the Institute of Molecular Medicine and Cell Research (IMMZ) of the University of Freiburg, joined forces with scientists from the Departments of Clinical ...

Immunology

Study identifies new mechanism for antibacterial immunity

The innate immune system serves as a first-line defense, responding to infections almost immediately after a pathogen makes its way into the body. This response is carried out in two major ways: the cell can amplify the message ...

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Enzyme catalysis

Enzyme catalysis is the catalysis of chemical reactions by specialized proteins known as enzymes. Catalysis of biochemical reactions in the cell is vital due to the very low reaction rates of the uncatalysed reactions.

The mechanism of enzyme catalysis is similar in principle to other types of chemical catalysis. By providing an alternative reaction route and by stabilizing intermediates the enzyme reduces the energy required to reach the highest energy transition state of the reaction. The reduction of activation energy (ΔG) increases the number of reactant molecules with enough energy to reach the activation energy and form the product.

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