Health

Analysis finds government websites downplay PFAS health risks

State and federal public health agencies often understate the scientific evidence surrounding the toxicity of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in their public communications, according to an analysis published today ...

Psychology & Psychiatry

COVID-19 pandemic led to increase in loneliness around the world

People around the world experienced an increase in loneliness during the COVID-19 pandemic, which, although small, could have implications for people's long-term mental and physical health, longevity, and well-being, according ...

Surgery

Experts sound alarm over baby tongue surgery

Lea had no problems breastfeeding her newborn son when she took him to see an osteopath in Paris, who nonetheless recommended surgery to cut a "too thick" strip of tissue under his tongue.

Medical economics

Financial risks posed by unproven stem cell interventions in Japan

The research group led by Professor Misao Fujita conducted a study to estimate the total amount the Japanese government would refund if a patient received unproven cell interventions and applied for a medical expense deduction.

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Evidence

Evidence in its broadest sense includes everything that is used to determine or demonstrate the truth of an assertion. Giving or procuring evidence is the process of using those things that are either (a) presumed to be true, or (b) were themselves proven via evidence, to demonstrate an assertion's truth. Evidence is the currency by which one fulfills the burden of proof.

Many issues surround evidence, making it the subject of much discussion and disagreement. In addition to its subtlety, evidence plays an important role in many academic disciplines, including science and law, adding to the discourse surrounding it.

An important distinction in the field of evidence is that between circumstantial evidence and direct evidence, or evidence that suggests truth as opposed to evidence that directly proves truth. Many have seen this line to be less-than-clear and significant arguments have arisen over the difference.

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