Ophthalmology

Imaging of conjunctival goblet cells helps diagnosis of dry eyes

Goblet cells are epithelial cells that produce mucins and disperse tears which help the surface of eyes maintain their wet environment. Goblet cells are closely related to autoimmune diseases including dry eyes and chemical ...

Oncology & Cancer

Deep learning identifies molecular patterns of cancer

A new deep-learning algorithm can quickly and accurately analyze several types of genomic data from colorectal tumors for more accurate classification, which could help improve diagnosis and related treatment options, according ...

Surgery

Building a better breast with eye-tracking technology

What makes the female breast attractive? The answer is subjective, of course. But studies using eye-tracking technology are providing a more objective basis for determining which breast areas are most attractive—which may ...

Diabetes

Helper protein worsens diabetic eye disease

In a recent study using mice, lab-grown human retinal cells and patient samples, Johns Hopkins Medicine scientists say they found evidence of a new pathway that may contribute to degeneration of the light sensitive tissue ...

Radiology & Imaging

Imaging uncovers secrets of medicine's mysterious ivory manikins

Little is known about the origins of manikins—small anatomical sculptures thought to be used by doctors four centuries ago—but now advanced imaging techniques have offered a revealing glimpse inside these captivating ...

Health

Air pollution linked to higher glaucoma risk

Living in a more polluted area is associated with a greater likelihood of having glaucoma, a debilitating eye condition that can cause blindness, finds a new UCL-led study in the UK.

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Eye

Eyes are organs that detect light, and send signals along the optic nerve to the visual and other areas of the brain[citation needed]. Complex optical systems with resolving power have come in ten fundamentally different forms, and 96% of animal species possess a complex optical system. Image-resolving eyes are present in cnidaria, molluscs, chordates, annelids and arthropods.

The simplest "eyes", such as those in unicellular organisms, do nothing but detect whether the surroundings are light or dark, which is sufficient for the entrainment of circadian rhythms. From more complex eyes, retinal photosensitive ganglion cells send signals along the retinohypothalamic tract to the suprachiasmatic nuclei to effect circadian adjustment.

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