Medical research

'Goldilocks' neurons promote REM sleep

Every night while sleeping, we cycle between two very different states of sleep. Upon falling asleep, we enter non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep where our breathing is slow and regular and movement of our limbs or eyes ...

Health

How to head off a pain in the neck

(HealthDay)—Neck pain can sneak up on you over time. While it can be caused by an accident or injury, your everyday posture and body mechanics can also be to blame, from the way you carry a shoulder bag, cradle your phone ...

Neuroscience

Breakthrough in understanding how human eyes process 3-D motion

Scientists at the University of York have revealed that there are two separate 'pathways' for seeing 3-D motion in the human brain, which allow people to perform a wide range of tasks such as catching a ball or avoiding moving ...

Neuroscience

Bright lights outdoors may help treat lazy eye in children

The maturation of visual acuity in both amblyopia and myopia may be closely associated with the development of pathways signaling bright features in the brain, according to research published in the Journal of Neuroscience ...

Medical research

Scientists use machine learning to improve gut disease diagnosis

A study published in the open access journal JAMA Open Network June 14 by scientists at the University of Virginia schools of Engineering and Medicine and the Data Science Institute says machine learning algorithms applied ...

Ophthalmology

Immune system can slow degenerative eye disease, mouse study shows

A new study shows that the complement system, part of the innate immune system, plays a protective role to slow retinal degeneration in a mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa, an inherited eye disease. This surprising discovery ...

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Eye

Eyes are organs that detect light, and send signals along the optic nerve to the visual and other areas of the brain[citation needed]. Complex optical systems with resolving power have come in ten fundamentally different forms, and 96% of animal species possess a complex optical system. Image-resolving eyes are present in cnidaria, molluscs, chordates, annelids and arthropods.

The simplest "eyes", such as those in unicellular organisms, do nothing but detect whether the surroundings are light or dark, which is sufficient for the entrainment of circadian rhythms. From more complex eyes, retinal photosensitive ganglion cells send signals along the retinohypothalamic tract to the suprachiasmatic nuclei to effect circadian adjustment.

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