Genetics

Gene that shapes mutation rate found in mice

Every organism is born with a few mutations in their genome that differ genetically from both of their parents. Such changes in an individual's genetic code create the diversity that allows nature to select advantageous traits ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Today's seasonal flu may descend from 1918 pandemic strain

Today's H1N1 flu—commonly known as the swine flu—appears to be a direct descendent of the influenza virus that caused the catastrophic 1918 pandemic, a new analysis shows.

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Why the origins of zoonotic diseases are difficult to track

About two years into the pandemic, we're still trying to find where and how it all started. Only last week, we heard bats in Laos may hold a clue about the origin of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID.

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Genetic code

The genetic code is the set of rules by which information encoded in genetic material (DNA or RNA sequences) is translated into proteins (amino acid sequences) by living cells. The code defines a mapping between tri-nucleotide sequences, called codons, and amino acids. A triplet codon in a nucleic acid sequence usually specifies a single amino acid (though in some cases the same codon triplet in different locations can code unambiguously for two different amino acids, the correct choice at each location being determined by context). Because the vast majority of genes are encoded with exactly the same code (see the RNA codon table), this particular code is often referred to as the canonical or standard genetic code, or simply the genetic code, though in fact there are many variant codes. Thus the canonical genetic code is not universal. For example, in humans, protein synthesis in mitochondria relies on a genetic code that varies from the canonical code.

It is important to know that not all genetic information is stored using the genetic code. All organisms' DNA contain regulatory sequences, intergenic segments, and chromosomal structural areas that can contribute greatly to phenotype but operate using distinct sets of rules that may or may not be as straightforward as the codon-to-amino acid paradigm that usually underlies the genetic code (see epigenetics).

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA