Vaccination

HPV vaccine shows success in gay, bisexual men

A study by Monash University and Alfred Health found a 70 percent reduction in one type of human papillomavirus (HPV) in gay and bisexual men after the implementation of the school-based HPV vaccination program.

Genetics

Should you take fish oil? Depends on your genotype

Fish oil supplements are a billion-dollar industry built on a foundation of purported, but not proven, health benefits. Now, new research from a team led by a University of Georgia scientist indicates that taking fish oil ...

Genetics

Romantic relationship dynamics may be in our genes

Variations in a gene called CD38, which is involved in attachment behavior in non-human animals, may be associated with human romantic relationship dynamics in daily life, according to a study published in Scientific Reports.

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Identification of stomach flu culprit

Norovirus is a major cause of acute gastroenteritis, with at least 49 different norovirus genotypes. GII.4 genotype is responsible for the majority of norovirus epidemic outbreaks. The genotypes associated with medically-attended ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Mavyret approved as 8-week treatment for hep C, compensated cirrhosis

(HealthDay)—Approval of Mavyret (glecaprevir and pibrentasvir) tablets has been expanded to eight-week treatment for treatment-naive patients aged 12 years and older with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes 1 through ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

FDA approves mavyret for children, adolescents with hep C

(HealthDay)—Mavyret (glecaprevir and pibrentasvir) tablets are now approved to treat all six genotypes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in children ages 12 to 17 years, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced yesterday.

Genetics

Happy in marriage? Genetics may play a role

People fall in love for many reasons—similar interests, physical attraction, and shared values among them. But if they marry and stay together, their long-term happiness may depend on their individual genes or those of ...

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Genotyping

Genotyping is the process of determining differences in the genetic make-up (genotype) of an individual by examining the individual's DNA sequence using biological assays and comparing it to another individual's sequence or a reference sequence. It reveals the alleles an individual has inherited from their parents . Traditionally genotyping is the use of DNA sequences to define biological populations by use of molecular tools. It does not usually involve defining the genes of an individual.

Current methods of genotyping include restriction fragment length polymorphism identification (RFLPI) of genomic DNA, random amplified polymorphic detection (RAPD) of genomic DNA, amplified fragment length polymorphism detection (AFLPD), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA sequencing, allele specific oligonucleotide (ASO) probes, and hybridization to DNA microarrays or beads. Genotyping is important in research of genes and gene variants associated with disease. Due to current technological limitations, almost all genotyping is partial. That is, only a small fraction of an individual’s genotype is determined. New mass-sequencing technologies promise to provide whole-genome genotyping (or whole genome sequencing) in the future.

Genotyping applies to a broad range of individuals, including microorganisms. For example, viruses and bacteria can be genotyped. Genotyping in this context may help in controlling the spreading of pathogens, by tracing the origin of outbreaks. This area is often referred to as molecular epidemiology or forensic microbiology.

Humans can also be genotyped. For example, when testing fatherhood or motherhood, scientists typically only need to examine 10 or 20 genomic regions (like single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs)). That is a tiny fraction of the human genome, which consists of three billion or so nucleotides.

When genotyping transgenic organisms, a single genomic region may be all that needs to be examined to determine the genotype. A single PCR assay is typically enough to genotype a transgenic mouse; the mouse is the mammalian model of choice for much of medical research today.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA