Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Improved outcomes seen with liver grafts from older donors

(HealthDay)—From 2003 to 2016, liver graft loss and mortality improved among recipients of liver grafts from older donors, according to a study published online Feb. 13 in JAMA Surgery.

Cardiology

Death at 10 years similar with bilateral, single-artery CABG

(HealthDay)—There is no difference in the rate of death from any cause at 10 years for patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with bilateral or single internal-thoracic-artery grafting, according to ...

Medical research

New material could improve bone grafting

For complex injuries and other situations requiring bone grafts, the best available technique involves autologous bone harvesting and re-implantation at the site of regrowth. However, because this process is invasive and ...

Cancer

New stem cell therapy to improve fight against leukemia

Stem cell transplantation is effective against leukemia. In many cases, however, the transferred immune cells of the donor also attack the recipients' healthy tissue—often with fatal consequences. Researchers at the University ...

Medical research

How skin begins: New research could improve skin grafts, and more

University of Colorado Boulder researchers have discovered a key mechanism by which skin begins to develop in embryos, shedding light on the genetic roots of birth defects like cleft palate and paving the way for development ...

Surgery

New insights into what drives organ transplant rejection

When it comes to transplant rejection, some organs are far trickier than others. Some transplantable organs, such as the liver, are readily accepted by the recipient's immune system, rarely triggering an immune response and ...

Medical research

Using light to fight GVHD

Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) is used to treat chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD)—a complication of bone marrow or stem cell transplant that occurs when donor cells attack the recipient. How ECP works is unclear, ...

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Grafting

Grafting is a horticultural technique whereby tissues from one plant are inserted into those of another so that the two sets of vascular tissues may join together. This vascular joining is called inosculation. The technique is most commonly used in asexual propagation of commercially grown plants for the horticultural and agricultural trades.

In most cases, one plant is selected for its roots and this is called the stock or rootstock. The other plant is selected for its stems, leaves, flowers, or fruits and is called the scion. The scion contains the desired genes to be duplicated in future production by the stock/scion plant.

In stem grafting, a common grafting method, a shoot of a selected, desired plant cultivar is grafted onto the stock of another type. In another common form called bud grafting, a dormant side bud is grafted onto the stem of another stock plant, and when it has inosculated successfully, it is encouraged to grow by pruning off the stem of the stock plant just above the newly grafted bud.

For successful grafting to take place, the vascular cambium tissues of the stock and scion plants must be placed in contact with each other. Both tissues must be kept alive until the graft has 'taken', usually a period of a few weeks. Successful grafting only requires that a vascular connection take place between the grafted tissues. Joints formed by grafting are not as strong as naturally formed joints, so a physical weak point often still occurs at the graft, because only the newly formed tissues inosculate with each other. The existing structural tissue (or wood) of the stock plant does not fuse.

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