Vaccination

Total number of HPV vaccination encounters down during pandemic

There was an increase in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination per encounter for pediatric patients aged 9 to 22 years, despite a decrease in overall encounters associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, according to a research ...

Medical economics

Costs cast cloud over Nigeria's HPV vaccine plan

Nigeria's latest target for introducing a life-saving vaccine against cervical cancer has been branded unrealistic by health specialists as cost concerns have yet to be addressed, leaving thousands of Nigerian women at risk.

Oncology & Cancer

Getting ahead of head and neck cancer

Many symptoms of head and neck cancer are hard to miss—a lump in the neck, persistent hoarseness, a mouth sore that doesn't heal—which is good news for early detection as long as symptoms aren't dismissed.

Medications

New therapeutic option for head and neck carcinomas

The various manifestations of head and neck carcinomas rank sixth in frequency worldwide and are fatal for about half a million people every year. In a quarter of cases, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is caused ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Single HPV shot enough for young women: WHO experts

A single vaccine shot against Human Papillomavirus (HPV), which causes cervical cancer, delivers comparable protection for girls and women under 21 as two doses, the WHO's immunisation experts said.

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Human papillomavirus

Alphapapillomavirus Betapapillomavirus Gammapapillomavirus Mupapillomavirus Nupapillomavirus

A human papillomavirus (HPV) is a papillomavirus that infects the epidermis and mucous membranes of humans. HPV can lead to cancers of the cervix, vulva, vagina, and anus in women. In men, it can lead to cancers of the anus and penis.

Approximately 130 HPV types have been identified. Some HPV types can cause warts (verrucae), but those types don't cause cancer. Other types can cause cancer, but those types don't cause warts. Other types have no symptoms and are harmless. Most people who become infected with HPV do not know they have it.

About 30-40 HPV types are typically transmitted through sexual contact and infect the anogenital region. Some sexually transmitted HPV types may cause genital warts. Persistent infection with "high-risk" HPV types—different from the ones that cause warts—may progress to precancerous lesions and invasive cancer. HPV infection is a cause of nearly all cases of cervical cancer. However most infections with these types do not cause disease.

Most HPV infections in young females are temporary and have little long-term significance. 70% of infections are gone in 1 year and 90% in 2 years.

A cervical Papanicolaou (Pap) test is used to detect abnormal cells which may develop into cancer. A cervical examination also detects warts and other abnormal growths which become visible as white patches of skin after they are washed with acetic acid. Abnormal and cancerous areas can be removed with a simple procedure, typically with a cauterizing loop.

Pap smears have reduced the incidence and fatalities of cervical cancer in the developed world, but even so there were 11,000 cases and 3,900 deaths in the U.S. in 2008. Cervical cancer has substantial mortality in resource-poor areas; worldwide, there are 490,000 cases and 270,000 deaths.

HPV vaccines, Gardasil and Cervarix, which prevent infection with the HPV types (16 and 18) that cause 70% of cervical cancer, may lead to further decreases.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA