Medications

Could a medicated foam make gene therapies more accessible?

Foam mixed with medications is already used to treat conditions such as varicose veins, hemorrhoids, wounds on the skin and even hair loss. Now, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center scientists have found that foam might also be ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Q&A: Ethical approaches to mitigate H5N1 bird flu

In recent months, H5N1 or HPAI (highly pathogenic avian influenza), commonly referred to as bird flu, has become a growing concern for public health authorities. Mitigation efforts, including surveillance and testing of livestock ...

Immunology

Unlocking the body's defenses: Understanding immunotherapy

In the battle against diseases, the human body boasts an intricate defense network capable of identifying and neutralizing threats—the immune system. It serves as a guardian, constantly patrolling the body to keep it safe ...

HIV & AIDS

New research traces the spread of HIV in and from Indonesia

The HIV variant dominant in Indonesia was introduced from Thailand over multiple events. A Kobe University study traces where it came from and how it spread from there, offering possible insights into the development of treatments ...

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Infectious disease

An infectious disease is a clinically evident disease resulting from the presence of pathogenic microbial agents, including pathogenic viruses, pathogenic bacteria, fungi, protozoa, multicellular parasites, and aberrant proteins known as prions. These pathogens are able to cause disease in animals and/or plants. Infectious pathologies are usually qualified as contagious diseases (also called communicable diseases) due to their potential of transmission from one person or species to another. Transmission of an infectious disease may occur through one or more of diverse pathways including physical contact with infected individuals. These infecting agents may also be transmitted through liquids, food, body fluids, contaminated objects, airborne inhalation, or through vector-borne spread.

The term infectivity describes the ability of an organism to enter, survive and multiply in the host, while the infectiousness of a disease indicates the comparative ease with which the disease is transmitted to other hosts. An infection however, is not synonymous with an infectious disease, as an infection may not cause important clinical symptoms or impair host function.

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