Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

New method for early diagnosis of liver diseases by proteomics

Two or three drinks every day could put your liver in danger. Using proteomics and machine learning, researchers now present a revolutionary tool to predict whether an individual has alcohol-related liver disease and if an ...

Biomedical technology

A marker's felt nib proves to be an excellent medical sampler

Researchers from MIPT, Skoltech and IMPB RAS have developed a compact sampling probe that facilitates biological sample collection for ambient ionization mass spectrometry analysis. This kind of sampler can be effectively ...

Oncology & Cancer

Probing deeper into tumor tissues

Today, as they did 100 years ago, doctors diagnose cancer by taking tissue samples from patients, which they usually fix in formalin for microscopic examination. In the past 20 years, genetic methods have also been established ...

Neuroscience

How proteins control information processing in the brain

A complicated interaction between proteins is needed for information to pass from one nerve cell to the next. Researchers at the Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (MLU) have now managed to study this process in the ...

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Mass spectrometry

Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique for the determination of the elemental composition of a sample or molecule. It is also used for elucidating the chemical structures of molecules, such as peptides and other chemical compounds. The MS principle consists of ionizing chemical compounds to generate charged molecules or molecule fragments and measurement of their mass-to-charge ratios. In a typical MS procedure:

MS instruments consist of three modules: an ion source, which can convert gas phase sample molecules into ions (or, in the case of electrospray ionization, move ions that exist in solution into the gas phase); a mass analyzer, which sorts the ions by their masses by applying electromagnetic fields; and a detector, which measures the value of an indicator quantity and thus provides data for calculating the abundances of each ion present. The technique has both qualitative and quantitative uses. These include identifying unknown compounds, determining the isotopic composition of elements in a molecule, and determining the structure of a compound by observing its fragmentation. Other uses include quantifying the amount of a compound in a sample or studying the fundamentals of gas phase ion chemistry (the chemistry of ions and neutrals in a vacuum). MS is now in very common use in analytical laboratories that study physical, chemical, or biological properties of a great variety of compounds.

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