Alzheimer's disease & dementia

Mass spectrometry to detect key markers of Alzheimer's

A group of Skoltech scientists led by Professor Evgeny Nikolaev in collaboration with colleagues from MIPT, Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology of RAS, and Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics of RAS has overviewed ...

Medical research

Navigating from the genome to the clinic using 'cell maps'

Breast cancer, COVID-19, and autism may seem unrelated, but they share some surprising connections. Some of the same genes that are mutated in breast cancer also get hijacked by COVID-19, and some other genes mutated in cancer ...

Genetics

A step closer to treatment for the most common form of blindness

Scientists at The University of Manchester have taken an important step towards finding a treatment for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the most common form of adult blindness in the developed world. The researchers ...

Oncology & Cancer

Different small cell lung cancer subtypes defined

Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a malignant disease associated with a particularly high mortality rate. According to a new multicenter study led by MedUni Vienna and conducted in collaboration with researchers from the Czech ...

Biomedical technology

A marker's felt nib proves to be an excellent medical sampler

Researchers from MIPT, Skoltech and IMPB RAS have developed a compact sampling probe that facilitates biological sample collection for ambient ionization mass spectrometry analysis. This kind of sampler can be effectively ...

Endocrinology & Metabolism

Researchers identify a new treatment for metabolic syndrome

Metabolic syndrome increases a person's risk for diabetes, heart disease, and stroke, and includes conditions such as obesity, high blood pressure and high blood sugar. In a recent mouse-model study, published in Cell Metabolism, ...

Oncology & Cancer

Fundamental cancer metabolism dogma revisited

A new paper in Nature Communications reveals new insights into adaptations made by cancer cells to rewire their metabolism to achieve growth and survive. Among the discoveries include a challenge to a well-known feature in ...

Parkinson's & Movement disorders

'E-nose' could someday diagnose Parkinson's disease by 'smelling' skin

A couple of years ago, a woman named Joy Milne made headlines when scientists discovered that she could "smell" Parkinson's disease (PD) on people with the neurodegenerative disorder. Since then, researchers have been trying ...

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Mass spectrometry

Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique for the determination of the elemental composition of a sample or molecule. It is also used for elucidating the chemical structures of molecules, such as peptides and other chemical compounds. The MS principle consists of ionizing chemical compounds to generate charged molecules or molecule fragments and measurement of their mass-to-charge ratios. In a typical MS procedure:

MS instruments consist of three modules: an ion source, which can convert gas phase sample molecules into ions (or, in the case of electrospray ionization, move ions that exist in solution into the gas phase); a mass analyzer, which sorts the ions by their masses by applying electromagnetic fields; and a detector, which measures the value of an indicator quantity and thus provides data for calculating the abundances of each ion present. The technique has both qualitative and quantitative uses. These include identifying unknown compounds, determining the isotopic composition of elements in a molecule, and determining the structure of a compound by observing its fragmentation. Other uses include quantifying the amount of a compound in a sample or studying the fundamentals of gas phase ion chemistry (the chemistry of ions and neutrals in a vacuum). MS is now in very common use in analytical laboratories that study physical, chemical, or biological properties of a great variety of compounds.

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