Medical research

In search of the optimal migraine relief

In order for migraine medication to be effective, it is vital that the active substance is released into the bloodstream immediately. The pills currently on the market today pass through the body's metabolism which means ...

Genetics

Exploring genetic regulation of immunoglobulin A

Increased levels of the antibody immunoglobulin A (IgA) are correlated with the manifestation of several diseases as well as African ancestry, according to findings published in Nature Communications. The findings provide ...

Medical research

COVID-19: A respiratory mucosal vaccine effective in mice

Less known to the general public, mucosal vaccination via the mucus membranes could provide robust protection against SARS-CoV-2 infections. Immune cells in the nose and lungs are considered better prepared to encounter and ...

Medical research

Exploring a potential new treatment for endometriosis

Up to 15% of women of reproductive age in the United States suffer from endometriosis, a condition characterized by pelvic pain, menstrual cramps and infertility. Endometriosis develops when tissue like the lining on the ...

Neuroscience

Using light to manipulate neuron excitability

Nearly 20 years ago, scientists developed ways to stimulate or silence neurons by shining light on them. This technique, known as optogenetics, allows researchers to discover the functions of specific neurons and how they ...

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Membrane

A membrane is a layer of material which serves as a selective barrier between two phases and remains impermeable to specific particles, molecules, or substances when exposed to the action of a driving force. Some components are allowed passage by the membrane into a permeate stream, whereas others are retained by it and accumulate in the retentate stream.

Membranes can be of various thickness, with homogeneous or heterogeneous structure. Membrane can also be classified according to their pore diameter. According to IUPAC, there are three different types of pore size classifications: microporous (dp < 2nm), mesoporous (2nm < dp < 50nm) and macroporous (dp > 50nm). Membranes can be neutral or charged, and particles transport can be active or passive. The latter can be facilitated by pressure, concentration, chemical or electrical gradients of the membrane process. Membranes can be generally classified into three groups: inorganic, polymeric or biological membranes. These three types of membranes differ significantly in their structure and functionality.

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