Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Changes in proteins play important role in aging kidneys

Studying protein changes in the kidneys as we age, as well as the transcription of genes into proteins, helps provide a full picture of the age-related processes that take place in these organs, says a study in mice published ...

Vaccination

Inside Covid vaccine production at BioNTech's new plant

Decontamination chambers, tight-fitting protective suits, a controlled atmosphere: vigilance is the order of the day when making COVID-19 vaccines at the new BioNTech plant in Marburg, Germany.

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Expert answers questions about new COVID-19 vaccine

The Food and Drug Administration has granted emergency use authorization for a new COVID-19 vaccine developed by Janssen Pharmaceuticals Inc., a subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson. The announcement means the U.S. now has three ...

Genetics

A genetic patch to prevent hereditary deafness

They can hear well up to about forty years old, but then suddenly deafness strikes people with DFNA9. The cells of the inner ear can no longer reverse the damage caused by a genetic defect in their DNA. Researchers at Radboud ...

Vaccination

Different types of COVID-19 vaccines: How they work

Curious about how mRNA vaccines and other types of COVID-19 vaccines can help you develop immunity to the COVID-19 virus? Understand how different technologies work with the immune system to provide protection.

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Messenger RNA

Messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) is a molecule of RNA encoding a chemical "blueprint" for a protein product. mRNA is transcribed from a DNA template, and carries coding information to the sites of protein synthesis: the ribosomes. Here, the nucleic acid polymer is translated into a polymer of amino acids: a protein. In mRNA as in DNA, genetic information is encoded in the sequence of nucleotides arranged into codons consisting of three bases each. Each codon encodes for a specific amino acid, except the stop codons that terminate protein synthesis. This process requires two other types of RNA: transfer RNA (tRNA) mediates recognition of the codon and provides the corresponding amino acid, while ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is the central component of the ribosome's protein manufacturing machinery.

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